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All the Category 5 Storms That Have Slammed the U.S.

Category 5 is as powerful as a hurricane can get under the Saffir-Simpson scale. Since 1924, there have been 35 documented hurricanes in the North Atlantic that reached this level—and of those, five have hit more

The Deadliest Natural Disasters in U.S. History

Mother Nature can be merciless. From the churning hurricanes of the Gulf Coast, to the trailer-tossing storms of Tornado Alley, to the ground-pounding quakes of California, the United States is no stranger to deadly natural disasters. Here are five of the worst natural disasters more

The Biggest Snow Storms in US History

March 11-14, 1888 More than 120 winters have come and gone since the so-called “Great White Hurricane,” but this whopper of a storm still lives in infamy. After a stretch of rainy but unseasonably mild weather, temperatures plunged and vicious winds kicked up, blanketing the East more

Humans vs. Snow: A Love-Hate History

Paleolithic Era: Skiing for Survival Today, skiing is a fun activity winter-lovers can’t wait to take advantage of at the first sight of freshly fallen snow, but it was originally invented thousands of years ago as a means of survival. The first use of skis can be found in a more

Mudslide in Washington state kills more than 40 people

On March 22, 2014, 43 people die when a portion of a hill suddenly collapses and buries a neighborhood in the small community of Oso, Washington, some 55 miles northeast of Seattle. It was one of the deadliest mudslides in U.S. history. The collapse occurred shortly after 10:30 more

The Superstorm That Flooded America

As friends and family gathered for Easter dinner at Benjamin Edholm’s house in Omaha, Nebraska, the sky turned green and a great tornado began to rip through the city. While the revelers huddled for safety, an object burst through the dining room window, slid across the table and more

The Great Northeast Blackout

At dusk, the biggest power failure in U.S. history occurs as all of New York state, portions of seven neighboring states, and parts of eastern Canada are plunged into darkness. The Great Northeast Blackout began at the height of rush hour, delaying millions of commuters, trapping more

The Tri-State Tornado

The worst tornado in U.S. history passes through eastern Missouri, southern Illinois, and southern Indiana, killing 695 people, injuring some 13,000 people, and causing $17 million in property damage. Known as the “Tri-State Tornado,” the deadly twister began its northeast track more

"Storm of the century" hits eastern U.S.

The so-called “storm of the century” hits the eastern part of the United States, killing hundreds and causing millions of dollars in damages, on November 25, 1950. Also known as the “Appalachian Storm,” it dumped record amounts of snow in parts of the Appalachian Mountains. more

Perfect storm hits North Atlantic

On October 30, 1991, the so-called “perfect storm” hits the North Atlantic producing remarkably large waves along the New England and Canadian coasts. Over the next several days, the storm spread its fury over the ocean off the coast of Canada. The fishing boat Andrea Gail and more

Freak storm dissipates over England

On November 27, 1703, an unusual storm system finally dissipates over England after wreaking havoc on the country for nearly two weeks. Featuring hurricane strength winds, the storm killed somewhere between 10,000 and 30,000 people. Hundreds of Royal Navy ships were lost to the more

Blizzard of 1996 begins

On January 6, 1996, snow begins falling in Washington, D.C., and up the Eastern seaboard, beginning a blizzard that kills 154 people and causes over $1 billion in damages before it ends. The Blizzard of 1996 began in typical fashion, as cold air from Canada pushed down and more

Blizzard brings tragedy to Northwest Plains

On January 12, 1888, the so-called “Schoolchildren’s Blizzard” kills 235 people, many of whom were children on their way home from school, across the Northwest Plains region of the United States. The storm came with no warning, and some accounts say that the temperature fell more

Bridges: Hurricanes have often brought misery to Texas

Summer in Texas brings memories of warm nights, the start of school, and the return of football. But it also means something else for Texans on the Gulf Coast: hurricane season. As the summertime seas cause the storms to build and swirl, a careful eye must turn to the weather to avoid the peril and destruction of the most powerful types of storms known to man. Through the years, Texas has been hit with incredibly powerful hurricanes.

Hurricanes that strike Texas form in the Atlantic Ocean or the Gulf of Mexico. A tropical depression forms when several storms come together into one rotating system. Once this system has sustained winds beyond 39 miles per hour, it becomes a tropical storm. It hits hurricane strength with sustained winds of 74 miles per hour. Hurricanes can form between March and December but usually are encountered between June and November. Hurricanes produce all types of weather-related disasters: deadly lightning, hail, powerful winds, torrential rains, and tornadoes.

During World War II, United States Army Air Force forecasters began naming storms, usually after their wives or girlfriends, to avoid confusion over multiple storms that may be traveling the seas at the same time. By the 1950s, civilian forecasters began using these names. A more formalized system of naming storms after women in alphabetical order began in 1952, with the names of men being added into the rotation by 1978. The introduction of weather satellites by the early 1960s greatly improved forecasting and tracking of hurricanes. In 1961, the Tiros-III satellite tracked the first hurricane from space. Reconnaissance flights by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration into the heart of hurricanes and Doppler radar systems introduced in the 1980s also help pinpoint potential landfall sites, wind intensity, and flooding dangers.

The earliest recorded hurricanes in Texas date to the years of Spanish exploration of Texas and the Gulf of Mexico. In the 16th century, no forecasting or tracking technology existed, posing extreme dangers for sailors who unknowingly ventured into the hearts of these storms. In fact, the word &ldquohurricane&rdquo is derived from a Spanish word taken from the names of gods of storms and winds used by various natives of the Caribbean Sea and Gulf coast. The first recorded hurricane to strike Texas hit a Spanish merchant fleet just off Galveston Island in 1527. The rare November hurricane killed nearly 200 people.

Sparse populations left many storms unrecorded, but a 1766 hurricane in the Galveston area destroyed a Spanish mission on the Trinity River. Galveston was struck again in September 1818 with a hurricane that flooded the island under four feet of water and damaged almost every building on the isle.

In 1875, a hurricane hit the thriving port city of Indianola, not far from Port Lavaca. Nearly 300 people died. The community rallied and rebuilt, but an 1886 hurricane wrecked the city once again. Dozens more perished in the storm, but residents abandoned the city instead of rebuilding. The county courthouse was relocated to Port Lavaca the next year and the post office closed. Nothing remains of the city today, with the remnants pulled into the sea by erosion or covered by the sands.

The Galveston Hurricane of 1900 was the worst natural disaster in American History. The storm devastated the island, flooding it to a depth of nine feet. The entire city was wrecked, with more than 8,000 dead. The storm caused the city&rsquos government to collapse, ultimately leading to an entirely new form of government to run the city and a new seawall to protect the island. A 1915 hurricane was the great test for the seawall. Though the storm was intense and 400 people died, the city was largely left intact.

Hurricane Alice in 1954 caused intense flooding along the Rio Grande Valley, with two feet of rain being dumped on Del Rio. Advances in forecasting helped prevent an even worse disaster from occurring from Hurricane Carla in 1961. More than a half million people were evacuated from the Texas coast in one of the most intense storms recorded up to that time. More than $325 million in damage was caused (more than $2.8 billion in 2021 dollars), and 31 people perished. Tropical Storm Claudette poured 54 inches of rain on Alvin in July 1979, the most rainfall in any 24-hour period in the nation&rsquos history. In 1980, Hurricane Allen left 269 dead and more than $1 billion in damage (or more than $3 billion in 2021 dollars). Allen spawned deadly tornadoes as far inland as Austin.

Though landfall causes hurricanes to lose strength, the force of the storms often do not dissipate rapidly. Sometimes the remnants of these storms still have wind speeds near hurricane strength as far away as the Waco area, such as happened with Hurricane Carla in 1961 and Hurricane Alicia in 1983. Alicia left 13 dead and caused $2.6 billion in damage, the most expensive storm in state history to that point. Hurricane Ike would top that with 84 dead and nearly $20 billion in damage in 2008. Hurricane Harvey in 2017 flooded Houston with four feet of rain, a disaster of nearly biblical proportions.

Forecasting and tracking technology have improved immensely. With the proper planning and heeding the warnings of meteorologists, hurricanes do not need to cost lives.

A Brief History of the Storm Prediction Center

The NOAA Storm Prediction Center (SPC) prepares forecasts of hazardous weather affecting the continental United States. The SPC, formerly known as the National Severe Storms Forecast Center, is a component of the National Weather Service's (NWS) National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). [1] In addition to issuing tornado and severe thunderstorm watches on an as-needed basis, the SPC also produces scheduled severe weather and fire weather outlooks, as well as short-term forecasts for heavy rain and winter storms. The SPC operates around-the-clock, with an on-duty staff that varies between 3 and 5 forecasters depending on the time of day.

Early Severe Weather Forecast Efforts

Although SPC's immediate history dates to the early 1950s, the roots of severe weather prediction in the United States may be traced much further. The development of a centralized weather forecast program by the U. S. Army Signal Corps in 1870 made apparent the need for improved documentation and increased understanding of destructive local storms. Leading the Corps in this effort was Sgt. John P. Finley. In the mid 1880s, Finley organized a team of more than 2000 "reporters" to document tornadoes and their associated weather conditions over the central and eastern United States. Using the data thus collected, Finley assembled maps of characteristic tornado-producing weather patterns that were then used to issue tornado "alerts." Finley's forecasts fell out of favor, however, in the late 1880s as the Corps (and, later, the Weather Bureau, predecessor of the NWS) felt that mention of the word "tornado" provoked undue fear amongst the public.

Little progress was made in the understanding and forecasting of severe local storms in the United States during the first part of the 1900s. Although forecasts occasionally mentioned the potential for severe weather, Weather Bureau policy continued to prohibit use of the word "tornado" in forecasts. Airplane and kite observations sparked renewed interest in severe weather in the 1920s and 1930s. Interest increased with the development of radiosondes and the growth of military aviation in World War II. Nevertheless, even though the ban on the word "tornadoes" was lifted in 1938, very few forecasts made mention of tornadoes during the 1940s.

1948 witnessed the single event that most directly led to the establishment of a centralized severe weather forecast program in the United States. Based on work by Weather Bureau researchers A. K. Showalter, J. R. Fulks, and others --- and on their own investigation of the conditions that produced a damaging tornado at Tinker Air Force Base in Oklahoma City on 20 March 1948 --- Air Force weather officers E. J. Fawbush and R. C. Miller successfully predicted the fortuitous occurrence of another tornado at the base five days later on 25 March. The forecast's accuracy drew considerable attention soon the officers were responsible for Air Force tornado prediction over much of the central United States. Three years later, the Severe Weather Warning Center, a formal Air Weather Service unit with responsibility for all Air Force sites on the United States mainland, was established under Fawbush and Miller's leadership.

The Birth of SELS

The success of the Air Force tornado program --- along with media pressure to adopt the program for civilian use --- led the Weather Bureau to establish its own severe weather unit on a trial basis at the Weather Bureau-Army-Navy (WBAN) Analysis Center in Washington, DC in March 1952. Fifteen forecasters, including members of the WBAN analysis staff and others from the Bureau's central office and field stations, were selected to staff the unit. Several weeks of techniques development and practice forecasts preceded the release of the unit's first public tornado "bulletin" on 17 March. This forecast mentioned the possibility of tornadoes in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas and Louisiana during the late night and early morning of the 17th - 18th. Although two tornadoes did occur in Texas, they were not in the outlook area. The group experienced more success with its second forecast, which was issued on 21 March for parts of east Texas, southern Arkansas, southeast Oklahoma and northern Louisiana. An update extended the forecast into parts of Tennessee, Kentucky and Indiana. Thirty-six tornadoes that began during the afternoon and continued through the night caused 208 deaths in Arkansas, Mississippi, Louisiana, Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky and Missouri.

The WBAN severe weather operation became permanent on 21 May 1952 when the group was formally recognized as the Weather Bureau Severe Weather Unit (SWU). Forecast responsibility that had been limited to tornadoes was now expanded to include large hail, high winds, and extreme convective turbulence.

Five permanent SWU forecasters were selected during the summer of 1952 to provide continuous shift coverage temporary staff continued to cover shifts as necessary until the permanent staffing was completed in September. The new forecasters were young most had been with the Weather Bureau less than ten years and had attended meteorology school with the military during World War II. Comparatively new forecasters were intentionally chosen as it was thought that they would be less likely to harbor preconceived notions about severe storm prediction. Three of the original five permanent SWU forecasters left the group before its move to Kansas City in 1954. Only Joseph Galway, the first forecaster to join the unit and the originator of the well-known atmospheric stability parameter, the "lifted index," remained with the SWU after 1955.

Although the first few severe weather forecasts were issued directly to the public via teletype, tornado forecasts through the remainder of 1952 were released by the affected Weather Bureau district offices --- usually after consultation with the SWU. Consecutively-numbered "Severe Weather Bulletins," the forerunner of today's "watches," were initiated in May 1952. As is the case today, the objective was to keep the threat areas as small as possible, with only as much lead time as believed necessary to allow for adequate public response. These early "watches" were not necessarily parallelograms some were odd-shaped trapezoids or even circles.

The Severe Weather Unit evolved rapidly in 1953 --- a year that coincidentally produced an unusually large number of tornadoes. In January, an experimental program to issue daily outlooks of the severe weather potential of the upcoming day was initiated. These trial forecasts, called "Severe Weather Discussions," were intended as guidance for selected Weather Bureau district offices for the noon - midnight (CST) time period. They became operational in February and were renamed "Convective Outlooks" when regular transmission began on the "Service A" teletype network in April 1955.

The unit was renamed the Severe Local Storm Warning Center (SELS) on 17 June 1953 --- shortly after death-dealing tornadoes struck Flint, MI, Waco, TX, and Worcester, MA. Devastating storms on 7-9 June alone claimed more than 200 lives. These events tested the endurance of the Center's relatively inexperienced staff. Although the storms on 7- 8 June were well forecast, the Worcester tornado on the 9th caught forecasters by surprise one forecaster requested (and was granted) a transfer out of the unit. By the end of the year, SELS supervisor Kenneth M. Barnett also had requested a transfer as the group came under increasing scrutiny regarding both the size and accuracy of its forecasts. Because of pressure to issue smaller "bulletins," tornado forecast areas decreased in size from nearly 38,000 square miles in 1952 to 27,000 square miles during the first half of 1953. (By comparison, average tornado and severe thunderstorm watches today cover about 25,000 square miles).

The Move to Kansas City

SELS continued to change in 1954. Staffing increased to include a supervisor, 7 forecasters, 6 chartists, a research forecaster and a research assistant. In addition, a new supervisor, Donald C. House, was selected to replace Barnett. House's enthusiasm for severe weather was immediately apparent: on busy days he often worked the forecast desk. Under his direction, the size of tornado forecasts continued to decrease average "bulletin" size in 1954 dropped to just 15,000 square miles. House also strived to enhance the scientific integrity of the unit by furthering staff research efforts started under Barnett. A series of contributions by SELS meteorologists Ferdinand Bates, Robert Beebe, James Carr, Donald Foster, Joseph Galway, Bernard Magor, Jean Lee, and others advanced the science of severe weather forecasting beginning in the mid 1950s many of these studies remain relevant today. House also emphasized the importance of high-level (jet stream) data in forecast preparation, incorporating the recent work of Herbert Riehl. House's emphasis on science, very much supported by Weather Bureau Chief Francis Reichelderfer and Regional Director Clayton Van Thullenar, was to a large extent responsible for the high level of respect that SELS commanded by the late 1950s.

In September 1954, SELS relocated from the WBAN Center in Washington to the Bureau's District Forecast Office on the 9th floor of the Federal Building in downtown Kansas City, Missouri. The move was made, in part, to allay media pressure to locate the office in a region more prone to severe weather. In addition, Kansas City was a major teletype circuit switching center. This allowed for more timely access to nationwide surface observations, and for faster forecast dissemination. But the move also recognized an existing local severe weather operation that had been established in January 1952 when J. R. Lloyd, Meteorologist-In-Charge of the Kansas City office, assembled a small group of forecasters to test the techniques of Fawbush and Miller. Oklahoma at that time was part of the District Office's area of responsibility. Lloyd's effort was the subject of scrutiny as pressure increased to have the Weather Bureau issue tornado forecasts like those of the Air Force. Lloyd intended to use the results of the test group to issue actual forecasts beginning in 1953 or 1954. His efforts were instrumental in hastening the Weather Bureau's decision to issue routine severe weather forecasts in May 1952.

The success of the Air Force and Weather Bureau severe weather programs, in addition to educational efforts that included brochures and presentations on tornado safety, significantly reduced public opposition to tornado forecasts during the mid 1950s. Many in fact praised the forecasts as a means of saving lives. During this period, a typical SELS tornado forecast would read as follows: ". possibility of an isolated tornado along and thirty miles either side of a line from Amarillo, TX to 20 miles north of Gage, OK, from 5:15 to 9:00 PM." Such a forecast would have first been telephoned to the district offices(s) involved. If it were agreed that a public tornado forecast was indeed prudent, the district forecaster would notify the local Weather Bureau offices under his jurisdiction, in addition to the media. If the proposed forecast affected only one district office, that office had final say as to whether or not tornadoes would be mentioned in the public forecast. If, on the other hand, a proposed tornado forecast involved more than one district office, SELS made the final decision. It was not until 1958 that SELS assumed total authority for public tornado and severe thunderstorm forecasts.

Throughout the 1950s and early 1960s, SELS data plotting and analysis were performed by hand. Analysis skills increased significantly with the installation of an IBM 1620 computer in April 1963. The 1620 allowed forecasters to access diagnostic fields of convergence and divergence that were difficult or impossible to manually compute. Automated plotting of surface and upper air observations commenced with the arrival of a CDC 3100 system in November 1965. This computer also was used for data tabulation and research by the District Forecast Office.

In August 1965, Donald House left SELS for a position with the newly-formed Environmental Science Services Administration (predecessor of NOAA) in Washington, and Allen D. Pearson was appointed SELS Director. Early the following year, the entire Weather Bureau Office in Kansas City (including SELS and the District Forecast Office) was renamed the National Severe Storms Forecast Center (NSSFC) to better reflect its national scope. In addition, SELS' tornado and severe thunderstorm forecasts were renamed "watches" to more directly correspond with the suite of products issued by the National Hurricane Center. Shortly thereafter, NSSFC moved to the 17th floor of the new Federal Building at 601 E 12th Street, where it remained until relocating to Norman, Oklahoma in 1997.

A series of computer upgrades significantly enhanced NSSFC's data processing and communication capabilities during the late 1960s and 1970s. But one of the more important developments of the period occurred with the establishment of the Techniques Development Unit (TDU) in April 1976. This group was formed to provide software development and to assist with the evaluation of new forecast techniques. It also provided a link to the severe weather research community. TDU's formation marked the first formal research/development program to be associated with SELS/NSSFC since the National Severe Storms Project, the original research component of SELS, departed Kansas City to become the National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL) in Norman in March 1964.

Frederick P. Ostby became the Director of NSSFC in May 1980, shortly after the transfer of Pearson to NWS Central Region Headquarters. Ostby oversaw NSSFC's entry into the age of interactive computing with the arrival of the Centralized Storm Information System (CSIS) in February 1982. This system, developed at the University of Wisconsin, enabled forecasters to overlay objective analyses of conventional surface and upper air data with real-time radar and satellite imagery. Watch areas could be formulated directly on the appropriate radar and satellite displays, and different objective analyses could be simultaneously displayed. Later upgrades allowed the user to "roam" and "zoom" across the entire nation. Mesoscale Discussions, unscheduled products used to describe ongoing convective trends and hazardous weather situations, were instituted in 1986 --- partly in response to the availability of timely analyses on CSIS.

As part of a decade-long effort to modernize the nation's weather services around the newly-deployed Doppler radar network, NSSFC was renamed the Storm Prediction Center (SPC) in October 1995, with former TDU chief Joseph T. Schaefer selected to succeed Ostby as Director. The McIDAS-based work stations that had been a mainstay of operations since 1982 gradually were replaced by UNIX-based workstations known as NAWIPS.

Early in 1997 and after more than 40 years of severe weather forecasting in Kansas City, the Center moved to Norman, OK. There, on the site of the former Norman U.S. Naval Air Station (now part of the University of Oklahoma), the SPC re-joined the organization that it had in part given birth to three decades earlier --- the National Severe Storms Laboratory. Shortly thereafter, the Mesoscale Discussion program was expanded to include short-term forecasts of hazardous winter weather and heavy rainfall, and a separate program was instituted to address the meteorological conditions favorable for wild fires in May 2000.

In September 2006 the SPC moved once again --- this time just a few miles south --- to join several other federal, state and Oklahoma University weather organizations in the new National Weather Center (NWC). Located on the University of Oklahoma Research Campus on Jenkins Avenue, the NWC offers opportunities for expanded operations-research collaboration to improve the forecasting and understanding of severe local storms. Improved ensemble forecasts and the development of a nationally-acclaimed operations-research test bed are just two positive effects that already have resulted from the relocation. SPC Science Support Branch (SSB successor to the TDU) chief Russell S. Schneider was selected to succeed Schaefer as SPC Director in August 2010.

A more detailed history of the Storm Prediction Center is available here.

8. Florida Keys, 1935

Let's just say Labor Day in 1935 in Florida was not a day of respite.

While this storm might appear modest at number eight on the list, it remains the most intense hurricane ever known to strike the U.S. and the third most intense hurricane in the Atlantic Basin, according to the NHC.

The super storm — which the NHC referred to as "small but vicious" — featured winds roaring through the Keys at an astounding 185 mph, according to the NOAA.

The category 5 hurricane obliterated low-lying areas around the Florida Keys and was the impetus for 408 fatalities, many of whom were World War I veterans, the NOAA reported.

Most of the following are tropical cyclones that passed through the states after weakening from their peak.

Pre–17th century Edit

Multiple intense hurricanes (Category 3+) hit New England in pre-Columbian times: between 1100 and 1150, 1300–1400 (1295–1407), and 1400–1450 (1404–1446), respectively. [1] [2]

17th century Edit

  • August 25, 1635 – The Great Colonial Hurricane struck Narragansett Bay, killing at least 46 people. This hurricane is often considered to be the most intense hurricane to hit New England since its European colonization. The only other storm of a similar magnitude was the 1938 hurricane. [3]
  • August 23, 1683 – A tropical cyclone hit Connecticut and caused tremendous flooding.
  • October 29, 1693 – Another tropical cyclone struck New England and caused flooding so great that new permanent inlets were created.

18th century Edit

  • October 18, 1703 – A tropical system caused great wind and flood damage many ships were lost.
  • February 23, 1723 – An off-season storm struck Cape Cod causing a great deal of damage, but no reported deaths. [4]
  • October 8, 1747 – Seven ships were destroyed and "many" perished.
  • September 8, 1769 – A hurricane that earlier caused great damage in Annapolis, Maryland blew ashore boats at Boston and adjacent areas, Providence, and Newport. Some houses were blown down and destroyed.
  • September 1775 – The Newfoundland hurricane apparently brought strong winds and/or waves to New England, though it is not known to have actually made landfall. This report may also be confused with the Independence Hurricane of September 2–3, 1775, which passed into New England from New York as a tropical depression or weak tropical storm.
  • August 13, 1778 – A weakening hurricane that struck the Carolinas, and impacted the coasts of Massachusetts and Rhode Island but did not make landfall. This storm prevented a major battle between England and France off the coast of Rhode Island.
  • November 1, 1778 – A possible late-season hurricane struck Cape Cod, Massachusetts, killing between 50 and 70 people. Twenty-three of these deaths are believed to be attributed to HMS Somerset III, a British ship which ran aground on Cape Cod during this storm.
  • October 8–9, 1782 – A hurricane struck the Carolinas and moved up the coast, causing damage in Providence, Rhode Island. It is currently not known if this hurricane made landfall in New England.
  • October 18–19, 1782 – A second hurricane moved up the coast and was considered more severe than the previous storm in portions of New England, especially Boston. This was a rare snow hurricane for New England and the storm was likely transforming into an extratropical cyclone as it approached the New England states.
  • September 24–25, 1785 – A hurricane which made landfall near Ocracoke, North Carolina, impacted southern New England. Based on known observations, this hurricane remained offshore of New England but passed close enough to inflict heavy rain and strong winds to New York City and Boston.
  • August 19, 1788 – A weakening hurricane moved up through eastern New York, impacting western New England.

19th century Edit

  • September 12, 1804 – The Antigua–Charleston hurricane, a major storm for the Caribbean, Georgia, and South Carolina, impacted portions of New England as a weakening tropical storm and then a tropical depression before dissipating off the coast of Nova Scotia.
  • October 9, [4] 1804 – As the Snow hurricane crossed New England, cool air became entrained in the circulation, and it became extratropical. The storm brought heavy snow across the Northeast, in some areas up to 2–3 feet (61–91 cm), and killed a total of 16 people one on land and fifteen at sea. This was the second observation of snow from a landfalling hurricane, but not the last. This hurricane which peaked at Category 3 intensity was a major one, especially for eastern Massachusetts.
  • October 3, 1805 – A hurricane that struck Mantanzas, Cuba reportedly reached the Maine territory (part of Massachusetts until 1820) as a tropical cyclone. Little information is available on this storm, however, a tropical cyclone exclusively striking Maine is not unique. This is what occurred during the passage of both Hurricane Gerda in 1969 and Tropical Storm Heidi in 1971.
  • September 1815 – What was once a major hurricane in the Carolinas brought tropical-storm-force winds to portions of New England. The likely track of this cyclone takes it very near but offshore of Nantucket.
  • September 23–24, 1815 – The 1815 New England hurricane struck New England as a major hurricane and delivered an 11-foot-high (3.4 m) storm surge that funneled up Narragansett Bay. The hurricane destroyed some 500 houses and 35 ships and flooded Providence, Rhode Island. It also caused at least 38 deaths throughout New England.
  • August 12, 1817 – A hurricane that was first reported near Tobago made landfall on the Florida panhandle and moved slowly up the coast. As either a weak tropical storm or tropical depression, the system brought rain to New York and portions of New England on the 12th before moving into Quebec.
  • September 4, 1821 – The Norfolk and Long Island hurricane was a very powerful tropical cyclone that made landfall within the modern day limits of New York City. It sliced through New England and was likely extratropical as it moved along the Maine coastline.
  • June 4–5, 1825 – An early-season hurricane formed in late May near Santo Domingo and later struck Cuba, Florida, and South Carolina before moving up the Mid-Atlantic coast and into New England. Hurricane conditions were reported as far north as New York City, and the cyclone's status as a tropical cyclone in New England is debatable given the early date.
  • August 27, 1827 – The St. Kitts Hurricane impacted the eastern seaboard from Wilmington, North Carolina, to Portsmouth, New Hampshire. It is possible that this cyclone made landfall along the United States, but there are also conflicting reports that say it remained offshore of Cape Hatteras, Delaware, and Nantucket. August 1827 was a very active month with at least four hurricanes impacting the North Atlantic.
  • August 1830 – Two hurricanes passed close to southeastern Massachusetts within a week of each other. First came the Atlantic Coast Hurricane on August 19 followed by a second hurricane around the 25th. Damage from these two systems was duly noted on Nantucket. It appears that the later system approached the region from the southeast before turning out to sea southeast of Cape Cod.
  • October 11, 1830 – A third hurricane impacted New England in 1830 but like the two in August, this cyclone did not make landfall in New England. Barnstable, Massachusetts reported the storm.
  • July 19, 1835 – The remnants of a hurricane that struck Florida twice moved into northern New England from New York.
  • August 30, 1839 – A hurricane moved up the east coast but did not make landfall. Fringe effects were felt on Long Island and southeastern New England.
  • October 3, 1841 – The October Gale became an extratropical storm, and passed off the coast of New England. The system dropped snow and sleet in Connecticut, bringing up to 18 inches (46 cm) of snow in some areas. [5] The storm wrecked the Georges Bank fishing fleet which drowned 81 fishermen and knocked down trees, tore roofs off houses and forced boats to go up on shore. The storm also destroyed a saltworks factory along Cape Cod, sending the economy to a slump. In 1842, a monument was erected to remember the sailors and fishermen lost at sea.
  • October 14, 1846 – The Great Havana Hurricane was still a strong tropical cyclone when it passed into New England from New York. In Hartford, Connecticut hurricane-force winds destroyed a trestle bridge. Numerous apple orchards in Massachusetts were reported ruined. No deaths due to the hurricane's passage over New England were reported.
  • October 6, 1849 – A tropical cyclone made landfall in Massachusetts, causing 143 deaths. This was the first known tropical cyclone known to have made landfall in New England since June 1825.
  • 1850 – Three tropical cyclones impacted New England this season. The remnants of a July hurricane in the Carolinas passed into New England. An August hurricane caused damage in its wake through New England but was probably a tropical storm. Finally, a September hurricane passed off the coast causing some damage.
  • October 19, 1851 – A tropical storm formed north of the Bahamas on October 16. It continued northward and reached a peak intensity of 70 mph (113 km/h). But it weakened to a 60 mph (97 km/h)-storm before making landfall in Rhode Island on the 19th. Later that day it dissipated on the border between Rhode Island and Massachusetts.
  • September 16, 1858 – A Category 1 hurricane made landfall on the Connecticut-Rhode Island border and brought heavy rain to New England before exiting Maine as a tropical storm. It then continued northeast until it dissipated just over the other side of the Gulf of St. Lawrence on the 17th.
  • September 28, 1861 – The Equinoctial Storm hit Connecticut as a 60 mph (97 km/h) tropical storm. It then continued east-northeast and dissipated in extreme eastern Maine later that day.
  • November 3, 1861 – The Expedition hurricane struck eastern Connecticut as a 60 mph (97 km/h) tropical storm. It then continued northeast until dissipating over southern Maine later that day.
  • September 19, 1863 – A tropical storm makes landfall in New York and brings strong winds to western New England.
  • October 30, 1866 – A tropical storm made landfall in New Jersey, Long Island, and New York City and began to parallel the New York-New England border until it briefly enters Vermont and dissipates.
  • September 8, 1869 – A Category 3 hurricane made landfall in Rhode Island, before moving north and dissipating in Maine. There was one confirmed death in Massachusetts. [6] Offshore Maine, a schooner capsized, killing all but one of the twelve crew. The storm also caused at least $50,000 (1869 USD) in damage in Maine alone. [7]
  • October 4, 1869 – The Saxby Gale crossed Cape Cod and Martha's Vineyard as a Category 2 hurricane, before striking Maine as a Category 1 hurricane. In Maine, heavy rainfall caused widespread flooding, and high winds destroyed at least 90 houses. [8] A very high storm tide also occurred in the Bay of Fundy, and the storm killed at least 37 people offshore of Nova Scotia.
  • October 9–13, 1878 – A Category 1 hurricane passes offshore, resulting in heavy rains and strong winds, causing 27 deaths. [9]
  • October 10, 1894 – A Category 1 hurricane struck Connecticut.
  • September 10, 1896 – A Category 1 hurricane struck Massachusetts.
  • September 24, 1897 – A tropical storm hit Connecticut with maximum sustained winds of 50 mph (80 km/h). It continued up through all the New England states except for Vermont.
  • October 6, 1898 – A hurricane came from the west and hit Maine as a tropical depression, then continued east into Atlantic Canada.
  • November 1, 1899 – A hurricane struck New England as a 50 mph (80 km/h) extratropical storm.

20th century Edit

  • August 1904 – An extratropical storm with hurricane-force winds left behind damage in southeastern Massachusetts, especially Martha's Vineyard. Trees were downed in Providence, Rhode Island, and New Bedford, Massachusetts. Center moved NE just within the coastline from Carolinas, with its eastern sector intact over ocean. The storm then tracked across Long Island and eastern Rhode Island. Much marine destruction with heavy losses in Buzzards Bay, Vineyard Sound and Massachusetts Bay.
  • July 21, 1916 – A Category 1 hurricane moved north from open Atlantic, crossing the Buzzards Bay/Cape Cod area of Massachusetts. Hourly wind reports indicated sustained 50 mph (80 km/h) but actual winds were higher than hourly observations. Gusts of 85 mph (137 km/h) recorded in southeast Massachusetts and Cape Cod.
  • August 1917 – A tropical storm sank four ships while passing offshore of Nantucket, Massachusetts, killing 41 sailors. The storm later made landfall in New Brunswick before becoming post-tropical.
  • August 1924 – A Category 1 hurricane with a large center moved over and just east of Cape Cod. It was a severe hurricane in New Bedford and Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts. New Bedford Newspaper (Mercury) published photo journal of the hurricanes severity. The system is often overlooked, however much material is present to include it as destructive storm. On Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket, it is often considered worse than the 1938 hurricane. Widespread wind losses to structures were reported. Very heavy tree damage in New Bedford north to Plymouth Massachusetts. The storm was later destructive in Nova Scotia.
  • November 3–4, 1927 – The remnants of a tropical storm spawned torrential rains as it passed over the Green Mountains in Vermont. The record flooding caused $40 million in damage and killed 84 people in Vermont and 1 in Rhode Island. [10] The storm ended as snow in the mountains. Note that this flood was unrelated to the 1927 Mississippi Flood.
  • September 9, 1934 – A strong tropical storm crossed Long Island and lost strength from slow movement as it moved through Connecticut much in a similar manner as Hurricane Belle of August 1976. Trees downed in Providence, Rhode Island, and New Haven, Conn.
  • September 1936 – A Category 1 hurricane moved east-northeast over Block Island and Nantucket Sounds after moving up East Coast of U.S. north of North Carolina and Virginia. The storm was destructive in Providence, Rhode Island, and eastern Massachusetts. Boston had 80 mph (129 km/h) winds at 8 a.m. on the 18th as the storm moved east along the south coast of Cape Cod and the Islands. There was much media coverage, but this storm was later eclipsed by the extreme hurricane two years later. Heavy wind-damage was realized across all of eastern Massachusetts.
  • September 21, 1938 – 1938 New England hurricane – This storm made landfall on Long Island and Connecticut as a Category 3 hurricane. Wind gusts reached Category 5 strength in eastern Connecticut, Rhode Island and southern Massachusetts west of Buzzards Bay and Cape Cod. The anemometer at the Blue Hill Observatory registered a peak wind gust of 186 mph (299 km/h) before the instrument broke. The hurricane lost strength as it tracked into interior areas of New England, but it is believed to have been at Category 2 intensity as it crossed into Vermont and at minimal Category 1 intensity as it tracked into Quebec. The storm killed over 600 people and is considered to be the worst hurricane to strike New England in modern times.
  • September 15, 1944 – The Great Atlantic Hurricane made landfall near the Connecticut/Rhode Island border as a Category 1 hurricane, causing severe wind damage in southeastern Massachusetts and across the Cape and Islands. Damage on Cape Cod and Martha's Vineyard was considered worse than that in 1938, with severe wind damage in New Bedford, Massachusetts. Much structural damage and much of the forest that had somehow escaped being decimated in 1938 fell victim to this storm. A total of 28 people died in New England due to the hurricane. [11]
  • September 1950 – Hurricane Dog was a major offshore hurricane that moved very close to Nantucket. Hurricane conditions occurred across southeast Massachusetts. Winds gusted near hurricane force on Nantucket and along the New England coast.
  • September 7, 1953 – Hurricane Carol made landfall near Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada, with considerable wind losses throughout the region. This hurricane was eclipsed by the extreme damage of another Carol the very next year.
  • August 31, 1954 – Hurricane Carol made landfall as a Category 3 hurricane, with gusts of Category 4 strength in southeast Rhode Island and south-coastal Massachusetts in the Buzzards Bay area, west of Cape Cod. Wind gusts of 135 mph (217 km/h) at Block Island, Rhode Island, and 125 mph (201 km/h) in Milton, Massachusetts, were recorded. At least 68 people were killed across New England. Extreme damage was reported in south coastal Rhode Island and south coastal Massachusetts. Damage in the Buzzards Bay region rivaled that of the 1938 hurricane.
  • September 11, 1954 – Hurricane Edna made landfall on Cape Cod and Martha's Vineyard as a strong Category 2 hurricane, just two weeks after Carol, with very severe losses occurring. Hourly wind readings of 90 mph (145 km/h) were recorded at New Bedford Airport in New Bedford, Massachusetts 100 mph (161 km/h) in Taunton, Massachusetts, 112 mph (180 km/h) in Milton, Massachusetts, and 125 mph (201 km/h) in Chilmark, Martha's Vineyard.
  • July 11, 1959 – Hurricane Cindy scrapes New England.
  • September 12–13, 1960 – Hurricane Donna makes landfall on Long Island, New York as a minimal Category 2 hurricane, and in Connecticut as a strong Category 1 hurricane. Peak wind gusts of 140 mph (225 km/h) at the Blue Hill Observatory in Massachusetts and 135 mph (217 km/h) on Block Island, Rhode Island. Hourly peak wind gusts at New Bedford Airport in Massachusetts recorded 110 mph (177 km/h) winds from the south-southwest in a sheltered area. Heavy tree, utility, and structural damage was observed in southeastern Massachusetts, coastal New Hampshire and Maine. Donna was the sixth hurricane to hit southern New England in thirty years. Hourly wind speed readings at City Hall in downtown New Bedford, Massachusetts recorded 80 mph (129 km/h) winds.
  • September 26, 1961 – Hurricane Esther moved within 35 miles of the south coast of Rhode Island and Massachusetts as a Category 1 hurricane, before subsequently making a sharp right turn and then making a loop, returning as a tropical storm five days later. Esther remained offshore, but produced hurricane-force wind-gusts from Block Island, Rhode Island, eastward across Cape Cod, Massachusetts, Nantucket, and Martha's Vineyard. There was less damage than in Hurricane Donna one year prior. Wind gusts of 75 mph (121 km/h) to 90 mph (145 km/h) occurred onshore.
  • October 7–8, 1962 – Hurricane Daisy remained offshore, but produced hurricane conditions in coastal northeastern Maine and on Mt. Desert Island.
  • October 29, 1963 – Hurricane Ginny remained offshore, but produced hurricane conditions in Nantucket, Massachusetts, and along coastal northeastern Maine.
  • September 8–11, 1969 – Hurricane Gerda brushed Cape Cod and made landfall at Eastport, Maine. No people were killed, though the storm was one of the strongest to hit Maine.
  • August 28, 1971 – Tropical Storm Doria moved into Connecticut after crossing Long Island. Hurricane-force winds were measured at sea level in Bridgeport, Connecticut. Wind gusts up to 80 mph (129 km/h) in southeastern Massachusetts and Blue Hill Observatory.
  • September 3, 1972 – Tropical Storm Carrie passed offshore of Cape Cod as a tropical storm, producing hurricane-force wind gusts of 90 mph (145 km/h) in Plymouth, Massachusetts, and 100 mph (160 km/h) in Hyannis, Massachusetts.
  • August 10, 1976 – Hurricane Belle's rather slow movement enabled weakening to set in as the storm approached Long Island, New York, and then moved into Connecticut and Massachusetts, before transversing the Vermont/New Hampshire border. Wind gusts up to 90 mph (145 km/h) were observed in southern Connecticut, 60 mph (97 km/h) in Providence, Rhode Island, and 75 mph (121 km/h) in Newport, Rhode Island.
  • September 27, 1985 – Hurricane Gloria crosses Long Island and Connecticut as a Category 1 hurricane, making it the first hurricane of significant strength to hit southern New England since 1960. Widespread wind damage was reported in Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Massachusetts, and later across coastal New Hampshire and Maine. The tree damage in Connecticut was the worst since the 1938 hurricane, and wind losses in Rhode Island and eastern Massachusetts were considerable to trees, utilities, and roofs. New Bedford, Massachusetts, reported wind gusts over 90 mph (145 km/h), and in Rehoboth, Massachusetts, state police barracks observed 120 mph (193 km/h) winds and also later reported a tornado in the vicinity. Winds at the T. F. Green Airport in Warwick, Rhode Island, gusted to 85 mph (137 km/h), and winds of 100 mph (161 km/h) were recorded on east side of Providence, near Brown University. In addition, winds in New London, Connecticut, were clocked at 110 mph (177 km/h) to 112 mph (180 km/h). Widespread forest damage occurred in Maine. Gloria also produced hurricane-force wind-gusts into New Brunswick, Canada.
  • August 19, 1991 – Hurricane Bob made landfall on Block Island, Rhode Island, and Newport, Rhode Island, as a Category 2 hurricane. Winds gusted to Category 3 strength in southeastern Massachusetts. Bob was one of the smallest in area and yet most intense hurricanes to hit southern New England since 1938. Storm surge in the Buzzards Bay area of Massachusetts was comparable to that of Hurricane Carol Bob was considered to be the worst storm in Martha's Vineyard since the 1944 hurricane. This hurricane was among the top twenty-five costliest U.S. hurricanes of twentieth century. The 1938 and 1944 hurricanes, as well as Carol in 1954, Donna in 1960, and Bob in 1991, are all on the list. A tidal surge of 10 feet (3.0 m) above normal was recorded in upper reaches of Buzzards Bay. A wind gust of 135 mph (217 km/h) was recorded at Block Island before the anemometer blew away. A 125 mph (201 km/h)h wind-gust was recorded in Newport, Rhode Island, and a 5-minute sustained wind speed of 111 mph (179 km/h) with gusts to 144 mph (232 km/h) was observed at Westport Harbour on the south coastal border of southern Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Additional wind recordings include a 120 mph (193 km/h) gust at the Massachusetts Maritime Academy on Buzzards Bay and a 120 mph (193 km/h) gust in Truro, Massachusetts. A one-minute sustained wind speed of 110 mph (177 km/h) was recorded on Chappaquiddick Island, Massachusetts. Several private anemometers in Falmouth, Massachusetts, on Cape Cod reported unofficial gusts of 150 mph (241 km/h). A New Bedford fishing boat off Cuttyhunk Island, Massachusetts, reported a peak gust of 162 mph (261 km/h).
  • October 30-November 1, 1991 – The Perfect Storm remained offshore, but produced wind gusts to 77 mph (124 km/h) over Cape Cod, and as far west as Jamestown, Rhode Island. Coastal damage was very high in exposed eastern Massachusetts due to high waves and tidal surge. Minor wind damage came just two months after Hurricane Bob, which produced major damage over southeast Massachusetts.
  • August 28, 1992 – The remnants of Hurricane Andrew combined with a frontal boundary, and moved from the Mid-Atlantic states into New England. The system dropped light rain and produced light wind across the region.
  • September 26, 1992 – The remnants of Tropical Storm Danielle moved just west of New England, but caused rainy conditions throughout the region.
  • July 13, 1996 – Tropical Storm Bertha moved into southern New England as a strong tropical storm with 70 mph (113 km/h) sustained winds, and in some exposed areas, winds gusted to minimal hurricane force in southern Rhode Island and south coastal Massachusetts, west of Buzzards Bay. Overall, Bertha produced minor damage, but notable damage in coastal Rhode Island.
  • September 2, 1996 – Hurricane Edouard passed offshore as a Category 1 hurricane, producing strong wind-gusts from Buzzards Bay eastward across Cape Cod and the islands of Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard. On Cape Cod, Edouard was a worse storm than Gloria in 1985, but not so destructive as Bob in 1991, which has become a benchmark hurricane on Cape Cod. Considerable losses occurred across Massachusetts, particularly in Oak Bluffs and Martha's Vineyard.
  • October 8, 1996 – The remnants of Tropical Storm Josephine brushed Cape Cod, dropping widespread light rain and wind gusts of 45 mph (72 km/h) to 60 mph (97 km/h) in New Bedford, Massachusetts. [12]
  • July 26, 1997 – Tropical Storm Danny stalled just to the south of Nantucket, [13] causing only minor damage, despite strong winds that were experienced in southeastern Massachusetts. [14] The minor damage included minimal flooding, power outages, and downed tree limbs. [15]
  • September 17–18, 1999 – After paralleling much of the U.S. East Coast, Tropical Storm Floyd moved into Connecticut and tracked northward through Maine. Floyd caused large power-outages and major flood damage across the region, with over 5 inches (13 cm) of rain falling over most of the area. Danbury, Connecticut, received up to 15 inches (380 mm) of rain from the storm, resulting in extensive flooding in the city and surrounding areas. Mudslides were reported in the Berkshire Mountains of western Massachusetts. Several major highways and a countless number of local roads in Connecticut and Massachusetts were closed for several days due to flooding and downed trees and power lines. Hurricane-force wind gusts were observed in southern Rhode Island North Kingston unofficially reported wind gusts to 90 mph (145 km/h). Wind gusts to 76 mph (122 km/h) were recorded at the New Bedford Hurricane Dike in New Bedford, Massachusetts, and 73 mph (117 km/h) in Hyannis, Massachusetts.

21st century Edit

  • June 17, 2001 – Tropical Storm Allison brushed southern New England as a subtropical storm. In Connecticut, rainfall peaked at 7.2 inches (180 mm) in Pomfret, [16] closing several roads, causing minor damage to numerous houses. [16] In Rhode Island, the rainfall washed out several roads. [17]
  • September 11, 2002 – The interaction between Hurricane Gustav and the non-tropical system caused strong winds that affected areas of coastal New England, mainly in eastern New York and Massachusetts. [18] The winds downed trees and power lines, and several homes and cars were damaged by falling trees about 19,000 homes lost power in Massachusetts. [19]
  • September 2002 – The remnants of Tropical Storm Hanna contributed to around 1 in (25 mm) of rainfall in Vermont. [20]
  • September 28, 2002 – The extratropical remnants of Hurricane Isidore produced widespread light rainfall across the region. [12] No damage or flooding was reported. [21]
  • September 2003 – Hurricane Fabian produced moderate surfing conditions along the East Coast of the United States. [22]
  • September 4, 2003 – The remnants of Tropical Storm Grace dropped light to moderate rainfall throughout the region, though no significant damages were reported. [12]
  • September 17, 2003 – The dissipating remnants of Tropical Storm Henri produced light rainfall. [12]
  • September 19, 2003 – Hurricane Isabel passed far to the west, though rainfall reached 1 inch (25 mm) in portions of western Connecticut and Massachusetts, and in portions of New Hampshire and Maine. [12] Falling trees from moderate winds downed power lines across the region, causing sporadic power outages. Two people died as a result of the hurricane, both due to the rough surf. [23] Damage in Vermont totals about $100,000 (2003 USD, $117,000 in 2008 USD). [24][25][26][27][28][29]
  • October 2003 – The interaction between Hurricane Kate and a high-pressure area to its north produced 3 to 4 foot (1 m) waves along the coast. [30]
  • August 14, 2004 – The extratropical remnants of Tropical Storm Bonnie produced heavy rainfall, with localized totals of up to 10 inches (250 mm). The rainfall flooded or washed out roads across the eastern Maine. In Aroostook County, Maine, the rainfall caused a mudslide, narrowing a county road to one lane. [31]
  • August 15, 2004 – Tropical Storm Charley dissipated near southern Massachusetts, though the remnant moisture produced up to 5 in (130 mm) of rainfall, particularly in Maine. [12] In Rhode Island, one man drowned in a rip current generated by the system. [32][33]
  • August 31, 2004 – Moisture from Hurricane Gaston dropped up to 3.69 in (94 mm) of rainfall. [12]
  • August 31, 2004 – Tropical Storm Hermine comes ashore near New Bedford, Massachusetts as a minimal tropical storm. Damage was minimal, and effects were limited to gusty winds and light rainfall. [34]
  • September 10, 2004 – The remnants of Hurricane Frances produced light, yet widespread rainfall the system eventually crossed northern Maine. [35]
  • September 19, 2004 – A plume of moisture broke off from the remnants of Hurricane Ivan and progressed northward, producing heavy rainfall across portions of the Mid-Atlantic and New England. [36] The rain caused extensive roadway flooding in Connecticut, [37] and resulted in minor river flooding in other areas. [38]
  • September 29, 2004 – Moisture from the remnants of Hurricane Jeanne storm produced light to heavy rainfall, with totals of over 7 inches (180 mm) on Nantucket. [12]
  • June 15, 2005 – After being absorbed into a frontal wave, the remnants of Tropical Storm Arlene drop light rainfall in Northern New England. [39]
  • July 8, 2005 – The extratropical remnants of Hurricane Cindy produced moderate rainfall in northern Vermont, generally within the range of 1 to 3 in (25 to 76 mm). [40]
  • August 31, 2005 – The remnants of Hurricane Katrina dropped up to 4.17 in (106 mm) of rain and cause gusty winds that blew down trees and tree limbs, primarily across Vermont, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts. [12][41]
  • September 17, 2005 – Hurricane Ophelia brushed Massachusetts with gusty winds and heavy rainfall. [42]
  • October 7–12, 2005 – The remnants of Tropical Storm Tammy and Subtropical Depression Twenty-Two (2005) contributed to the Northeast U.S. flooding of October 2005, which killed 10 people [43][44] and contributed to the wettest month on record in locations throughout the Northeastern United States. [45]
  • June 15, 2006 – The extratropical remnants of Tropical Storm Alberto dropped rainfall throughout the region, peaking at 1.98 in (50 mm) at Windsor Locks, Connecticut. [12]
  • July 21, 2006 – Tropical Storm Beryl makes landfall on Nantucket, generating waves 10 feet (3.0 m) in height as the storm approached the island. [46] Light rainfall and gusty winds were also reported there, and in portions of Massachusetts. [47]
  • September 3, 2006 – The extratropical remnants of Hurricane Ernesto dropped light rainfall 1.72 in (44 mm) of precipitation was reported at Marlboro, Vermont. [12]
  • June 4, 2007 – The extratropical remnants of Tropical Storm Barry entered the region, producing moderate rainfall that peaked at 3.2 inches (81 mm) at Taunton, Massachusetts. [48]
  • November 3, 2007 – As a powerful extratropical storm, Hurricane Noel hit coastal Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Maine with hurricane-force wind-gusts of up to 89 mph (143 km/h), with sustained winds topping out at 59 mph (95 km/h). [49] Power outages were widespread about 80,000 customers in Massachusetts, mostly on Cape Cod, and 9,000 in Maine lost electric power. [50] Heavy rainfall, high seas, and coastal flooding also occurred. [51]
  • September 6, 2008 – Tropical Storm Hanna made landfall at Myrtle Beach, South Carolina and proceeded northeastward through the Mid Atlantic states and New England, dropping moderate to heavy rainfall and spawning gusty winds across southern New England. [52]
  • September 15, 2008 – The remnants of Hurricane Ike reached northern New England, though no effects were reported. [53]
  • September 28, 2008 – Hurricane Kyle passed to the east as it heads towards Canada, affecting Maine with heavy rainfall and gusty winds that caused scattered power outages. [54] Up to 7.15 in (182 mm) of precipitation falls in Hancock County, Maine. [55]
  • August 21, 2009 – Hurricane Bill passed just offshore of New England causing very heavy surf, and a period of rain and gusty winds over Southeastern Massachusetts.
  • August 29, 2009 – Tropical Storm Danny passes over Nantucket as an extratropical storm, causing up to 2 inches (51 mm) of rain in Massachusetts and Rhode Island, and bringing wind gusts up to 60 mph (97 km/h) off the coast of Nantucket and Maine.
  • November 12, 2009 – Hurricane Ida, after hitting the northeast gulf coast as a tropical storm, redeveloped off the Carolina coast as a strong nor'easter, bringing severe damage as far north as New Jersey, where severe flooding, beach erosion, and strong winds were reported. As the center of the storm moved out to sea, a batch of moisture broke off it, and moved north, bringing moderate rain to New England. The storm caused millions of dollars in damage.
  • September 4, 2010 – Hurricane Earl passed about 90 miles offshore, but still brought heavy rain, large waves, and tropical storm force gusts to Cape Cod. The heaviest rain affected areas such as Nantucket, Martha's Vineyard, and areas over Maine, while the strongest wind was a recorded gust of 58 mph (93 km/h) near Hyannis, Massachusetts. Sustained winds were of 29 to 35 miles per hour, just at and below tropical storm force. [56]
  • August 28, 2011 – Hurricane Irene weakened to a tropical storm just before its landfall in New York, striking with winds of 70 mph (113 km/h). Irene produced high winds, heavy rains, and flash flooding especially in western New England. The storm left at least 16 people dead throughout New England, including ten deaths in Connecticut. The eastern quadrant of Irene remained intact, as that section had never transversed land and moved north-northeast across southern Bristol and Plymouth counties in Massachusetts. Winds at times reached hurricane force from Westport east to Woods Hole on the south coast.
  • October 29–30, 2012 – Hurricane Sandy affected Southern New England with its outer bands producing heavy storm surge, winds, and rainfall before the storm's landfall in New Jersey. Sandy devastated the Jersey Shore, New York City, parts of Long Island and the Connecticut and Rhode Island coastlines. Flooding and power outages (roughly nine million customers total) lasted several days, while thousands of trees, telephone poles and traffic light stanchions were snapped. A total of approximately $71.4 billion in property damage was left in Sandy's wake after it made landfall and its center went over Pennsylvania and New York. Sandy killed 5 people in New England (4 in Connecticut and 1 in New Hampshire). To the west, Sandy dumped 2–4 feet (61–122 cm) of snow in the Appalachian Mountain region and flatlands.
  • October 2–5, 2015 – Hurricane Joaquin, at one point forecast to make a landfall in New England, eventually passed offshore and produced high surf along Cape Cod and Nantucket.
  • September 19–22, 2017 – Hurricane Jose stalled to the south of New England, meandering offshore for several days. This resulted in major rainfall and high winds throughout the region, particularly on Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard, and Nantucket. Rainfall peaked at 6.4 inches (160 mm) on Nantucket, [57] and maximum sustained winds reached 53 mph (90 km/h) miles per hour in Cuttyhunk, with gusts up to 62 mph (100 km/h) recorded on Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket. [58]
  • October 29–30, 2017 – The combination of Tropical Storm Philippe and an extratropical system resulted in approximately 1.2 million power outages in New England. The system produced storm-force sustained winds, reaching 57 mph (90 km/h) in Warwick, Rhode Island, and hurricane-force wind gusts, peaking at 93 mph (150 km/h) in Popponesset, Massachusetts. In addition, the system dropped several inches of rain, peaking at 5.5 inches (140 mm) in Canton, Connecticut. [59][60]
  • September 18, 2018 – The remnants of Hurricane Florence passed through the region, resulting in gusty winds and heavy rainfall. A maximum of 7.0 inches (180 mm) of rainfall was recorded in Baldwinville, Massachusetts. [61]
  • October 12, 2018 – The remnants of Hurricane Michael passed through southeastern Massachusetts, dropping 5 to 6 inches (130 to 150 mm) of rainfall on Cape Cod. [citation needed]
  • Early September 2019 – Hurricane Dorian brushed Nantucket, Cape Cod and Martha's Vineyard in eastern Massachusetts it produced tropical storm force winds and light-to-moderate rain. The storm later brushed southeast Maine as it hit Nova Scotia.
  • October 11–13, 2019 – Tropical Storm Melissa brought rainfall, coastal flooding, and strong swells to southeastern New England. [62]
  • July 9, 2020 – Tropical Storm Fay made landfall on New Jersey and triggered multiple meteorological warnings for much of New England. [63]
  • August 4, 2020 – Tropical Storm Isaias made landfall near North Carolina but maintained tropical storm strength well into New England, causing extensive power outages and tree damage, particularly in Connecticut. The storm became extratropical over Vermont. [citation needed]
  • October 30, 2020 – Post-tropical Storm Zeta brought over half a foot of snow accumulation in parts of New England, resulting in power outages, downed trees, and numerous crashes, some serious. Several injuries from crashes were also reported. [64][65]

A landfall in New England occurs only if the center of the storm comes ashore in Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, or Connecticut as they all share a coastline. Tropical cyclones that made landfall outside of New England, but subsequently passed through the region, are excluded from this category. For example, the 1893 New York hurricane, Tropical Storm Doria of 1971, and Hurricane Irene of 2011 all made landfall in New York City, but failed to cross Long Island Sound and enter Connecticut along its coastline. In addition, other systems such as the 1876 San Felipe hurricane, 1888 Louisiana hurricane, 1893 Sea Islands hurricane, and Hurricane Able of 1952 all passed through New York, to the north of New York City, before entering New England.

A landfall is also distinct from a direct hit, in which the eyewall, or core of the highest winds, comes onshore, without the center of the storm moving ashore. [66]

New England hurricanes have made landfall on many occasions. Normally, due to cold SSTs and high wind shear, hurricanes do not last long, so the ones that do make landfall are normally weak, with major hurricanes (Category 3 or higher) being rare. [67]

The following tables are a list of all tropical cyclones that have made landfall in New England since records began in 1851:

19th century Edit

The 19th century saw a few notable storms. In 1869 an intense Category 3 hurricane struck Southeastern New England. Other hurricanes that made landfall include the Equinoctial Storm, Expedition hurricane, and the Saxby Gale. Since hurricanes were not named and fewer records were kept at the time, the information on some of the storms remains incomplete.

Name Category Season Date of landfall
Peak intensity Intensity at landfall
Unnamed Tropical storm Tropical storm 1851 October 19, 1851
Unnamed Category 2 Category 1 1858 September 16, 1858
"Equinoctial" Category 1 Tropical storm 1861 September 28, 1861
"Expedition" Category 1 Tropical storm 1861 November 3, 1861
"Great September" Category 3 Category 3 1869 September 8, 1869
"Saxby" Category 2 Category 2 1869 October 4, 1869
Unnamed Category 1 Tropical storm 1872 October 27, 1872
Unnamed Category 1 Tropical storm 1874 September 30, 1874
Unnamed Category 3 Category 1 1879 August 19, 1879
Unnamed Category 1 Category 1 1888 September 26, 1888
Unnamed Category 2 Tropical storm 1889 September 25, 1889
Unnamed Category 3 Category 1 1894 October 10, 1894
Unnamed Category 3 Category 1 1896 September 10, 1896
Unnamed Tropical storm Tropical storm 1897 September 24, 1897

20th century Edit

The 20th century saw eight hurricanes making landfall in New England out of these the more notable include the 1938 New England hurricane (also called the Long Island Express), which made landfall as a major hurricane [68] Hurricane Carol did the same sixteen years later. [69] The last hurricane to make landfall in New England was Hurricane Bob in 1991 as a Category 2 hurricane with maximum sustained winds of 100 mph. [70]

Name Category Season Date of landfall
Peak intensity Intensity at landfall
Unnamed Category 1 Tropical storm 1908 May 30, 1908
Unnamed Category 2 Tropical storm 1916 July 21, 1916
Unnamed Tropical storm Tropical storm 1923 October 19, 1923
Unnamed Category 2 Tropical storm 1934 September 9, 1934
"New England" Category 5 Category 3 1938 September 21, 1938
"Great Atlantic" Category 4 Category 1 1944 September 15, 1944
Carol Category 3 Category 3 1954 August 31, 1954
Edna Category 3 Category 2 1954 September 11, 1954
Cindy Category 1 Tropical storm 1959 July 11, 1959
Brenda Tropical storm Tropical storm 1960 July 30, 1960
Donna Category 4 Category 1 1960 September 12, 1960
Tropical Storm Six Tropical storm Tropical storm 1961 September 15, 1961
Esther Category 5 Tropical storm 1961 September 26, 1961
Gerda Category 3 Category 2 1969 September 10, 1969
Heidi Tropical storm Tropical storm 1971 September 14, 1971
Belle Category 3 Tropical storm 1976 August 10, 1976
Gloria Category 4 Category 1 1985 September 27, 1985
Bob Category 3 Category 2 1991 August 19, 1991
Bertha Category 3 Tropical storm 1996 July 13, 1996
Floyd Category 4 Tropical storm 1999 September 16–17, 1999

21st century Edit

So far in the 21st century three tropical cyclones have made landfall in New England. Tropical Storm Hermine in 2004, which made landfall in southeastern Massachusetts, Tropical Storm Beryl in 2006, which made landfall in Nantucket, and Tropical Storm Hanna in 2008, which made landfall in Connecticut. All three storms caused minimal damage overall throughout the region.

Name Category Season Date of landfall
Peak intensity Intensity at landfall
Hermine Tropical storm Tropical storm 2004 August 31, 2004
Beryl Tropical storm Tropical storm 2006 July 21, 2006
Hanna Category 1 Tropical storm 2008 September 6, 2008

Some tropical cyclones that have impacted New England have resulted in fatalities in the region. The most notorious and deadly of these storms is the 1938 New England hurricane which killed between 682 and 800 people. This list includes all tropical cyclones that have resulted in at least 10 deaths in New England. Some storms may be excluded or their death toll may be inaccurate due to a lack of available data at the time.

A short history of hurricanes

“More than 41 percent of hurricanes that hit the United States also make some kind of landfall in the Sunshine State. Florida has also been hit by more than twice as many hurricanes as the next closest hurricane-prone state, which is Texas.” — Jarrod Heil, “Five Most and Least Hurricane Prone Areas in Florida,” Universal Property and Casualty Insurance Co.

Those words from the Universal Property and Casualty Insurance Co. may not surprise most Floridians, but for me, in my research into the subject, I was astounded to find that Bay County has had its share, perhaps even more than its share, of these destructive forces.

The official list of hurricanes in Florida began in 1851. In the State’s list of hurricanes with a Category 3 or stronger rating, the first 66 years list 11. Five of those hit close enough to our county to have caused severe damage, and in many cases, altered the beaches, islands and passes of our shores.

In fact, the very first storm listed directly hit Panama City and created the well-remembered Hurricane Island.

Here is another surprising fact: For the next 57 years (1918-1974), no major storm hit Bay County. Citizens began to believe that our county dodged most major storms. I recall various geographical and hydrographical explanations for this misinterpreted phenomena.

Things changed starting in 1975. First there was Eloise (Sept. 23, 1975), then Opal (Oct. 4, 1995), Ivan (Sept. 16, 2004), Dennis (July 10, 2005), and Michael (Oct. 10, 2018). For that 43-year period and 12 major recorded storms, Bay County received five.

Is there a cyclical pattern to these storms? Perhaps there is not yet enough data to establish this, but for almost half of a century, data shows that we should take these storms very seriously. We are by no means immune, and, in fact, very vulnerable to them.

Bay Countians can take some solace in other statistics. If we include hurricanes of Cat 1 and 2 in the mix, then Broward, Collier and points farther south have received more hits than the Northwest since 1900.


The History Museum of Bay County, 133 Harrison Ave. in historic downtown Panama City, has reopened. The hours are 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday. New displays include the Women’s Suffrage Movement (on loan by the National Archives), the Massalina Family and Gideon vs. Wainwright.

Looking Back is provided each month by the Bay County Historical Society. Thanks for advice and help in researching this month’s column are due to Ryan Michaels, meteorologist, WJHG TV-7.

The 10 deadliest storms in history

Can catastrophic storms change the course of history? The answer is yes, based on what happened after the deadliest tropical cyclone in recorded history hit East Pakistan in 1970.

Low-lying islands were inundated, and entire villages were wiped out on Nov. 12, 1970, when the Bhola cyclone swept over the Bengal coast. Crops were destroyed throughout the region. The storm and its aftermath killed as many as 500,000 people.

At the time, East Pakistan was a province separated from the rest of Pakistan by hundreds of miles of Indian territory. Political discord had been in the air even before the storm, but the Pakistani government came under severe criticism for its handling of relief operations afterward.

The outcry drew thousands of protesters to anti-government rallies — and the opposition capitalized on the popular dissatisfaction by winning a landslide victory in national elections held a month after the storm.

The political situation quickly deteriorated to the point that civil war broke out in 1971 — a conflict that widened into a war with India and led to East Pakistan's independence as the new nation of Bangladesh.

Will this month's catastrophic Cyclone Nargis touch off a fresh wave of political change just across the Bay of Bengal, in the isolated nation of Myanmar? It's too early to predict, but the Bhola cyclone shows that a fatal storm's impact does not end when the winds die down.

Deadliest storms mostly in Bengal
Storms in the Bay of Bengal account for seven of the 10 deadliest hurricanes, typhoons and cyclones in recorded history, as documented by Weather Underground. The casualty figures are notoriously difficult to pin down, but here is the list:

  1. Bhola cyclone, Bangladesh (East Pakistan), 1970. Death toll estimated at 150,000 to 550,000.
  2. Hooghly River cyclone, India and Bangladesh, 1737. Death toll: 350,000.
  3. Haiphong typhoon, Vietnam, 1881. Death toll: 300,000.
  4. Coringa cyclone, India, 1839. Death toll: 300,000.
  5. Backerganj cyclone, Bangladesh, 1584. Death toll: 200,000.
  6. Great Backerganj Cyclone, Bangladesh, 1876. Death toll: 200,000.
  7. Chittagong cyclone, Bangladesh, 1897. Death toll: 175,000.
  8. Super Typhoon Nina, China, 1975. Death toll: 171,000.
  9. Cyclone 02B, Bangladesh, 1991. Death toll: 140,000.
  10. Great Bombay Cyclone, India (from the Arabian Sea), 1882. Death toll: 100,000.

Depending on how the final death toll is estimated, Cyclone Nargis may well find its way onto the top-10 list. On Wednesday, a U.S. diplomat told The Associated Press that the toll could top 100,000.

Other deadly disasters
To put those figures into perspective, other types of natural disasters have caused far more casualties throughout history. China's 1931 Yangtze River flood rates as the very deadliest on the list, with estimates of the death toll ranging from 850,000 (or even lower, according to the Chinese government) to as many as 4 million people.

The deadliest earthquake in recorded history is China's Shaanxi earthquake of 1556, which is said to have killed 830,000 people. The Asian tsunami of 2004 also rates a place on the top-10 list for the deadliest natural disasters, with the toll currently estimated at more than 230,000 people.

Since North Carolina's days as a colony—well before the advent of modern meteorology and hurricane science—its residents have tracked numerous major storms to hit the coast. Thanks to detailed record-keeping by inhabitants, we've got descriptions of many of the hurricanes to hit North Carolina over its formative two centuries.

1752: In late September, a hurricane ravaged the North Carolina coast in Onslow County, just north of Wilmington. The courthouse was destroyed, along with all public records, as well as many crops and livestock. "At 9 o'clock the flood came rolling in with great impetuosity, and in a short time the tide rose 10 feet above the high water mark of the highest tide," said an eyewitness.

1769: A hurricane struck the North Carolina Outer Banks in September. The colonial capital of the time, New Bern, was almost completely destroyed.

1788: A hurricane made landfall on the Outer Banks and moved into Virginia. This storm was so notable that George Washington wrote a detailed account in his diary, causing the storm to be referred to as "George Washington's storm." The damage was severe at his home in Mount Vernon, Virginia.

1825: One of the earliest-in-the-season hurricanes to ever hit the state (early June), this storm brought incredibly damaging winds onshore.

1876: What became known as the "Centennial Gale" moved through North Carolina in September, bringing heavy flooding to the coast.

1878: A powerful storm known as the "Great October Gale" roared into the Outer Banks in October. Winds of over 100 miles an hour were recorded at Cape Lookout, near Wilmington.

1879: A hurricane in August of this year was among the worst of the century. Devices for measuring wind speed were shattered and destroyed from the sheer force of winds at Cape Hatteras and Kitty Hawk. This storm was so intense that the state's governor, Thomas Jarvis, was forced to flee his hotel in Beaufort, which later collapsed.

1896: A September hurricane made landfall far south of the Carolinas, in the northern portion of Florida. The storm remained unusually strong, though, and damage from 100-mile-an-hour winds was reported as far north as Raleigh and Chapel Hill.

1899: The "San Ciriaco Hurricane" would make its way through the Outer Banks in August of this year, flooding portions of the Hatteras community and other barrier islands. Diamond City, the state's lone whaling community, was destroyed in the storm and abandoned. Over 20 deaths were reported.

A History of Major Storms in NYC

Published October 26, 2012 &bull Updated on October 29, 2012 at 9:17 pm

With Hurricane Sandy heading north towards the tri-state area, here is a look back at major storms that have slammed us in the past.


One of the only hurricanes believed to have passed directly over parts of modern New York City made landfall on Sept. 3, 1821. In one hour the tide rose 13 feet and inundated wharves, causing the East River to meet the Hudson River across lower Manhattan as far north as Canal Street. Because flooding was concentrated in neighborhoods with far fewer homes than exist today few deaths were attributed to the storm.


A Category 1 hurricane destroyed Hog Island, a resort island off the Rockaways in southern Queens in 1893.


In 1938, the eye of a Category 3 hurricane crossed over Long Island and into New England, killing nearly 200 people. The storm caused millions of dollars in damage and killed 10 people in New York City. Floods knocked out electrical power in the Bronx and above 59th Street in Manhattan. The IND subway line lost power, and 100 large trees were destroyed in Central Park. New York City experienced the weaker side of the hurricane, which could have caused far more deaths and damage if it passed closer to the five boroughs.

Hurricane Carol made landfall in eastern Long Island and southeastern Connecticut in 1954. It was the most destructive hurricane to hit the northeast coast since 1938, with sustained winds over 100 mph and gusts of 115 to 125 mph Though the storm's track was 40 miles east of the five boroughs, major flooding occurred throughout the city.

Hurricane Donna created an 11-foot storm tide in the New York Harbor in 1960, causing extensive pier damage.


In August 1955, rains from hurricanes Diane and Connie caused significant flooding in the city, even though the eye of those storms did not cross over any of the five boroughs. More than 200 deaths in Pennsylvania, New York and New Jersey were caused by Diane. At LaGuardia Airport Connie dropped more than 12 inches of rain.

Tropical Storm Agnes combined with another storm system in June 1972, flooding areas from North Carolina to New York state and causing 122 deaths and more than $6 billion in damage, when adjusted for inflation.

1985, GLORIA

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers said that Hurricane Gloria in 1985 could have been catastrophic had it been a little closer to the city and arrived at high tide. The catefory 3 hurricane first hit North Carolina and caused devistation along the east coast. Though downgraded to a category 1 hurricane by the time it reached Long Island, the storm left serious damage on the island.

In 1995, Hurricane Felix lingered near the East Coast for nearly a week in 1995, menacing the Northeast.

1996, BERTHA

Tropical Storm Bertha brought heavy rain to the city in July 1996.


After moving toward New York City around Labor Day in 1996, Hurricane Edouard veered out to sea.

Tropical Storm Floyd brought sustained 60 mph winds and dumped 10 to 15 inches of rain in parts of New Jersey and New York state over a 24-hour period in September 1999. Flash flooding forced hundreds of people to leave their homes in counties just outside the five boroughs. New York City schools closed for the first time since 1996 and the city opened emergency storm shelters as a precautionary measure.

Hurricane Irene was downgraded to a tropical storm just before it made landfall in New York City in August 2011. The city issued the first-ever mandatory evacuation of coastal areas, an evacuation that encompassed 370,000 residents living in evacuation zone A, the entire Rockaway Peninsula, and 34 health care facilities located in evacuation zone B. The city provided shelter for 10,000 evacuees. Up to 7inches of rain fell across the city, with winds of 65 mph. The storm cost the city an estimated $100 million in damages and more than 8,000 residents were approved for $13.6 million in federal disaster assistance.

Information from the New York City and Nassau County Offices of Emergency Management.

On this day: Hurricane Charley blows into Ireland in 1986

August 25 marks the anniversary of Hurricane Charley in Ireland. Winds of 65.2mph and rainfall peaking at 280mm in Kippure, County Wicklow resulted in the breaking of daily rainfall records and dangerous flooding, inundating over 450 buildings.

At least five people were killed as a result of Hurricane Charley. In Bray, the River Dargle overflowed, flooding some areas with almost two meters of water, leading to the evacuation of 1,000 people. $9,279,000 was allocated to repairs.

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Charley was not the only major storm to batter Ireland. The island has been battered by a few fierce storms. Here is a list of Ireland's worst storms and winters ever recorded:

The Night of the Big Wind - 1839

The Night of the Big Wind was a massive hurricane that swept over Ireland on the night of January 6, 1839.

Up to 300 people died, tens of thousands were left homeless, and winds reached well over 115 miles per hour in a category three hurricane. Twenty-five percent of the houses in Dublin were destroyed and 42 ships were sunk.

The storm began after a period of very odd Irish weather. A heavy snowstorm on January 5 was followed by a balmy sunny day, almost unheard of for that time of year.

Some people claimed the temperature reached as high as 75 degrees and the heavy snow of January 5 totally melted.

During the daytime on January 6, a deep Atlantic low-pressure system began moving across Ireland, where it collided with the warm front. The first news of bad weather was reported in County Mayo. The steeple at the Church of Ireland in Castlebar was blown down.

As the evening wore on, the winds began to howl and soon reached hurricane force. The arrival of the hurricane-force winds would never be forgotten by those who lived through it.

The Dublin Evening Post described its arrival with the following: “about half-past ten, it rose into a high gale, which continued to increase in fury until after midnight, when it blew a most fearful and destructive tempest.”

In Dublin, crowds flocked to the old Parliament House in College Green to hide under the portico, believing it to be one of the few places strong enough to withstand the storm.

The Big Snow of 1947

Anyone who lived through the blizzard of 1947 will always have it ingrained in their memory. The harsh conditions and the scarcity of fuel and food made life difficult for both man and beast.

The extreme weather began at the end of February 1947 and continued well into the month of March. The snow and wind were quite severe on the last Friday in February.

The snow fell intermittently until the Monday, when a blizzard set in with strong cold winds and harsh daytime snows – this continued for twenty-four hours nonstop. The blizzard was driven by a fierce east wind and swept the country on the Tuesday.

It paralyzed road and rail services and brought all traffic to a standstill. Huge snow-drifts, some up to fifteen feet high, were common in many areas.

The cold weather began around the middle of February and lasted through March. Up to 600 people are said to have died.

Hurricane Katia - September 2011

Hurricane Katia battered Ireland and wreaked havoc across the country. Hurricane-force winds and giant waves led to transport chaos, fallen trees, damaged buildings and flooding.

The government’s weather forecasters, Met Eireann, issued an extreme weather warning amid predictions of storm gusts of up to 80mph battering the west and northwest coasts.

Peak winds of 71mph swept across the rest of the country thanks to the tail end of Hurricane Katia, which was classified as a category four hurricane when it had hit the US coastline earlier that month.

Worst Winter on Record - 1963

The winter of 1962/1963 continues to be talked about in Ireland – and with good reason. It remains the coldest winter on record in Ireland and the UK since records began, according to IrishWeatherOnline’s Patrick Gordon.

The consistency of low daily mean temperatures that set in during the Christmas period of 1962, which lasted right up to the middle of March, was truly remarkable.

Snow showers continued to fall in counties Wicklow, Waterford, Wexford, Cork, Tipperary, Limerick, Kildare and Kilkenny, which added to the already significant accumulations in these areas and further isolated rural areas. In Europe, it was reported that at least 500 people died due to the intense cold that set in during late December.

Hurricane Charley - August 25, 1986

A hurricane downgraded to an extratropical cyclone, Charley brought heavy rainfall and strong winds to Ireland and the United Kingdom and was responsible for at least 11 deaths.

In Ireland, the rainfall set records for 24-hour totals, including an accumulation of more than 7.8 in (200 mm), which set the record for the greatest daily rainfall total in the country.

Across the country, the rainfall caused widespread flooding, including two rivers bursting their banks. In the United Kingdom, the storm downed trees and power lines and caused rivers to flood.