Apkallu's Daggers, Door C

Apkallu's Daggers, Door C


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Rendell was born Ruth Barbara Grasemann in 1930, in South Woodford, Essex (now Greater London). [3] Her parents were teachers. Her mother, Ebba Kruse, was born in Sweden to Danish parents and brought up in Denmark her father, Arthur Grasemann, was English. As a result of spending Christmas and other holidays in Scandinavia, Rendell learned Swedish and Danish. [4] Rendell was educated at the County High School for Girls in Loughton, Essex, [3] the town to which the family moved during her childhood.

After high school she became a feature writer for her local Essex paper, the Chigwell Times. However, she was forced to resign after filing a story about a local sports club dinner she hadn't attended and failing to report that the after-dinner speaker had died midway through the speech. [5]

Rendell met her husband Don Rendell when she was working as a newswriter. [3] They married when she was 20, and in 1953 had a son, Simon, [6] now a psychiatric social worker who lives in the U.S. state of Colorado. The couple divorced in 1975 but remarried two years later. [7] Don Rendell died in 1999 from prostate cancer. [6]

She was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) in the 1996 Birthday Honours [8] and a life peer as Baroness Rendell of Babergh, of Aldeburgh in the County of Suffolk, on 24 October 1997. [9] She sat in the House of Lords for the Labour Party. In 1998 Rendell was named in a list of the party's biggest private financial donors. [10] She introduced into the Lords the bill that would later become the Female Genital Mutilation Act 2003.

In August 2014, Rendell was one of 200 public figures who were signatories to a letter to The Guardian expressing their hope that Scotland would vote to remain part of the United Kingdom in September's referendum on that issue. [11]

Baroness Rendell's awards include the Silver, Gold, and Cartier Diamond Daggers from the Crime Writers' Association, three Edgars from the Mystery Writers of America, The Arts Council National Book Awards, and The Sunday Times Literary Award. [2] A number of her works (see the section below) have been adapted for film or television. [12] [13] She was also a patron of the charity Kids for Kids [14] which helps children in rural areas of Darfur. There is a blue plaque on one of her homes, 45 Millsmead Way, in Loughton. This was unveiled by her son Simon on 24 February 2016. [15]

Rendell had a stroke on 7 January 2015 [16] and died on 2 May 2015. [17]

Rendell wrote two unpublished novels before the 1964 publication of From Doon with Death, which was purchased for £75 by John Long it was the first mystery to feature Chief Inspector Reginald Wexford. Rendell said that the character of Wexford was based on herself. [18] The Monster in the Box, released in October 2009, was widely suggested to be Wexford's last case. [19] This was incorrect however, it was the final novel featuring Wexford as an employed policeman: in the novel that followed, The Vault, he had retired. [20]

In addition to these police procedurals starring Wexford, Rendell wrote psychological crime novels exploring such themes as romantic obsession, misperceived communication, the impact of chance and coincidence, and the humanity of the criminals involved. Among such books are A Judgement in Stone, The Face of Trespass, Live Flesh, Talking to Strange Men, The Killing Doll, Going Wrong and Adam and Eve and Pinch Me. For the last novel published in her lifetime, The Girl Next Door, she returned to the Loughton of her childhood, with an implied comparison of the moral climate of wartime England and 2014.

Rendell created a third strand of writing with the publication in 1986 of A Dark-Adapted Eye under her pseudonym Barbara Vine (the name was derived from her own middle name and her great grandmother's maiden name). [4] King Solomon's Carpet, A Fatal Inversion and Asta's Book (alternative U.S. title, Anna's Book), among others, inhabited the same territory as her psychological crime novels while further developing themes of human misunderstandings and the unintended consequences of family secrets and hidden crimes. The author was noted for her elegant prose and sharp insights into the human mind, as well as her cogent plots and characters. Rendell injected the social changes of the last 40 years into her work, bringing awareness to such issues as domestic violence. [21]

The Inspector Wexford series was successfully televised, starring George Baker as Inspector Wexford and Christopher Ravenscroft as Detective Mike Burden, under the title The Ruth Rendell Mysteries, with 48 episodes from 1987 to 2000. Rendell praised Baker's performance, stating "It was a marvellous achievement as an actor to make him more and better than the author intended." [18] Many of her other works have been adapted for film and television. She said that Chabrol's 1995 version of A Judgement in Stone, La Cérémonie with Sandrine Bonnaire, was one of the few film adaptations of her work that she was happy with. The novel was also filmed in 1986 with Rita Tushingham. [22] Chabrol made La Demoiselle d'honneur in 2004, based on The Bridesmaid.

Other adaptations are Diary of the Dead (1976), from the book One Across, Two Down the 1997 Pedro Almodóvar film Live Flesh [23] The Tree of Hands, directed by Giles Foster for Granada with Lauren Bacall (U.S. title: "Innocent Victim") and another version of The Tree of Hands, Betty Fisher et autres histoires (2001, a.k.a. Alias Betty), with screenplay and direction by Claude Miller. Francois Ozon's 2015 film The New Girlfriend was based on Rendell's short story of the same name. [24] Two episodes of Tales of the Unexpected were based on Rendell's short stories.

  • 1975 – Mystery Writers of America Best Short Story Edgar: The Fallen Curtain
  • 1976 – Gold Dagger for Fiction: A Demon in My View
  • 1979 – Mystery Writers of AmericaEdgar Award (shortlist): A Sleeping Life
  • 1980 – Mystery Writers of AmericaEdgar Award (shortlist): Make Death Love Me
  • 1980 – Martin Beck Award: Make Death Love Me
  • 1981 – Arts Council National Book Award for Genre Fiction: The Lake of Darkness
  • 1984 – Silver Dagger for Fiction: The Tree of Hands
  • 1984 – Mystery Writers of America Best Short Story Edgar: The New Girlfriend
  • 1986 – Gold Dagger for Fiction: Live Flesh
  • 1986 – Mystery Writers of AmericaEdgar Award (shortlist): The Tree of Hands
  • 1986 – Mystery Writers of AmericaEdgar Award (shortlist): An Unkindness of Ravens
  • 1987 – Mystery Writers of AmericaEdgar Award: A Dark-Adapted Eye
  • 1987 – Gold Dagger for Fiction: A Fatal Inversion
  • 1988 – Angel Award for Fiction: The House of Stairs
  • 1990 – Sunday Times Award for Literary Excellence
  • 1991 – Gold Dagger for Fiction: King Solomon's Carpet
  • 1991 – Cartier Diamond Dagger for a Lifetime's Achievement in the Field
  • 1996 – Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE)
  • 1997 – Mystery Writers of America Grand Master Award
  • 1997 - Life Peer as Baroness Rendell of Babergh
  • 2004 – Mystery Ink Gumshoe Award for Lifetime Achievement
  • 2005 – CWADagger of Daggers (best crime novel to have won the Gold Dagger award (shortlist)): A Fatal Inversion
  • 2007 – Gumshoe Award for Best European Crime Novel (shortlist): The Minotaur
  • 2007 – Theakston's Old Peculier Crime Novel of the Year Award (longlist): End in Tears
  • 2010 – Lost Man Booker Prize (longlist): [25]A Guilty Thing Surprised

Inspector Wexford series Edit

  1. From Doon with Death (1964)
  2. A New Lease of Death (1967) (American title: The Sins of the Fathers)
  3. Wolf to the Slaughter (1967)
  4. The Best Man to Die (1969)
  5. A Guilty Thing Surprised (1970)
  6. No More Dying Then (1971)
  7. Murder Being Once Done (1972)
  8. Some Lie and Some Die (1973)
  9. Shake Hands Forever (1975)
  10. A Sleeping Life (1979)
  11. Put on by Cunning (1981) (American title: Death Notes)
  12. The Speaker of Mandarin (1983)
  13. An Unkindness of Ravens (1985)
  14. The Veiled One (1988)
  15. Kissing the Gunner's Daughter (1991)
  16. Simisola (1994)
  17. Road Rage (1997)
  18. Harm Done (1999)
  19. The Babes in the Wood (2002)
  20. End in Tears (2005)
  21. Not in the Flesh (2007)
  22. The Monster in the Box (2009)
  23. The Vault (2011)
  24. No Man's Nightingale (2013)

Standalone novels Edit

  • To Fear a Painted Devil (1965)
  • Vanity Dies Hard (1965) (American title: In Sickness and in Health)
  • The Secret House of Death (1968)
  • One Across, Two Down (1971)
  • The Face of Trespass (1974)
  • A Demon in My View (1976)
  • A Judgement in Stone (1977)
  • Make Death Love Me (1979)
  • The Lake of Darkness (1980)
  • Master of the Moor (1982)
  • The Killing Doll (1984)
  • The Tree of Hands (1984)
  • Live Flesh (1986)
  • Talking to Strange Men (1987)
  • The Bridesmaid (1989)
  • Going Wrong (1990)
  • The Crocodile Bird (1993)
  • The Keys to the Street (1996)
  • A Sight for Sore Eyes (1998)
  • Adam and Eve and Pinch Me (2001)
  • The Rottweiler (2003)
  • Thirteen Steps Down (2004)
  • The Water's Lovely (2006)
  • Portobello (2008)
  • Tigerlily's Orchids (2010)
  • The Saint Zita Society (2012)
  • The Girl Next Door (2014)
  • Dark Corners (2015)

Novellas Edit

  • Thornapple (1982). [27] Collected in The Fever Tree
  • Heartstones (1987). Uncollected
  • The Thief (2006). Collected in A Spot of Folly

Written as Barbara Vine Edit

  • A Dark-Adapted Eye (1986)
  • A Fatal Inversion (1987)
  • The House of Stairs (1988)
  • Gallowglass (1990)
  • King Solomon's Carpet (1991)
  • Asta's Book (1993) (American title: Anna's Book)
  • No Night Is Too Long (1994)
  • The Brimstone Wedding (1995)
  • The Chimney-sweeper's Boy (1998)
  • Grasshopper (2000)
  • The Blood Doctor (2002)
  • The Minotaur (2005)
  • The Birthday Present (2008)
  • The Child's Child (2012)

Short story collections Edit

  • The Fallen Curtain (1976)
  • Means of Evil and Other Stories (1979) (five Inspector Wexford stories)
  • The Fever Tree (1982)
  • The New Girlfriend (1985)
  • The Copper Peacock (1991)
  • Blood Lines (1995)
  • Piranha to Scurfy (2000)
  • Collected Short Stories, Volume 1 (2006)
  • Collected Short Stories, Volume 2 (2008)
  • A Spot of Folly (2017)

Uncollected short stories Edit

  • "The Martyr", included in Midsummer Nights (Ed Jeanette Winterson), Quercus, 2009
  • "Paradise", in The Strand Magazine #11, 2003

Uncollected round-robin short stories to which Rendell was a contributor Edit

  • "Death in the Square", co-authored with Peter Levi, Roald Dahl and Ted Willis, Daily Telegraph, 1988
  • "Web of Intrigue", co-written with members of the public. Daily Telegraph, 1997

Non-fiction Edit

  • Ruth Rendell's Suffolk (1989)
  • Undermining the Central Line: giving government back to the people (with Colin Ward, 1989) a political tract
  • The Reason Why: An Anthology of the Murderous Mind (1995)

Children's Books Edit

  1. ^ Alison Flood (1 March 2013). "Ruth Rendell: a life in writing". The Guardian . Retrieved 1 March 2013 .
  2. ^ ab The Oxford Companion to English Literature. Sixth edition. Ed. by Margaret Drabble. Oxford University Press, 2000, p. 847. 0-19-866244-0.
  3. ^ abc
  4. "Ruth Rendell, crime writer - obituary". 2 May 2015 . Retrieved 23 March 2018 – via www.telegraph.co.uk.
  5. ^ ab
  6. LibBrooks (3 August 2002). "The Profile: Ruth Rendell". The Guardian.
  7. ^
  8. "Author Ruth Rendell dies aged 85". BBC.
  9. ^ ab
  10. "Open and shut case: Is Ruth Rendell finally ready to open up about her puzzling personal life?". The Independent. 10 March 2013.
  11. ^
  12. Brooks, Libby (3 August 2002). "Ruth Rendell Dark Lady of Whodunnits". The Guardian. London . Retrieved 28 October 2011 .
  13. ^
  14. "No. 54427". The London Gazette (Supplement). 15 June 1996. p. 9.
  15. ^
  16. "No. 54933". The London Gazette. 29 October 1997. p. 12149.
  17. ^
  18. " ' Luvvies' for Labour". BBC News. 30 August 1998.
  19. ^
  20. "Celebrities' open letter to Scotland – full text and list of signatories". The Guardian. London. 7 August 2014 . Retrieved 26 August 2014 .
  21. ^Ruth Rendell (1930–2015).IMDb
  22. ^ The Hutchinson Encyclopedia of Literature. Helicon Publishing, 2006.
  23. ^
  24. "How We Are Run". kidsforkids.org.uk. 6 May 2015 . Retrieved 23 March 2018 .
  25. ^
  26. "Blue plaque unveiled for renowned and much-loved author Ruth Rendell". East London and West Essex Guardian Series . Retrieved 23 March 2018 .
  27. ^
  28. "Ruth Rendell in critical condition after stroke". BBC News. 7 January 2015.
  29. ^
  30. "Author Ruth Rendell dies aged 85". BBC News . Retrieved 2 May 2015 .
  31. ^ ab
  32. "Wexford is me, Ruth Rendell confesses". BBC News. 10 October 2011.
  33. ^
  34. Walker, Tim (4 May 2009). "Ruth Rendell closes the book on Wexford but new drama beckons". The Daily Telegraph. London . Retrieved 17 March 2010 .
  35. ^
  36. Alison Flood. "Ruth Rendell: a life in writing | Books". The Guardian . Retrieved 26 August 2014 .
  37. ^
  38. Vanessa Thorpe (17 August 2013). "Ruth Rendell: 'Withholding information from the reader should be part of any story ' ". The Guardian.
  39. ^
  40. anxietyresister (24 April 1987). "A Judgment in Stone (1986)". IMDb.
  41. ^
  42. "Ruth Rendell returns to ITV after 12 years with a dark thriller". Telegraph.co.uk. 6 August 2012.
  43. ^https://www.theguardian.com/film/2015/may/21/the-new-girlfriend-review-francois-ozon-ruth-rendell [bare URL]
  44. ^
  45. "Novels up for 'lost' Booker Prize". BBC News. 1 February 2010.
  46. ^
  47. Debrett's Peerage. 2000.
  48. ^ Published in Academy Mystery Novellas, Volume 5: Women Write Murder, Martin H. Greenberg and Edward D. Hoch, editors. 1987

A critical essay on Rendell's crime novels appears in S. T. Joshi's book Varieties of Crime Fiction (Wildside Press, 2019) 978-1-4794-4546-2.


Rewards

If the player chooses the correct vase, Tal-Rey will offer them a choice of one of three different level 45 weapons --- a Warrior's Sword, a Mage's Staff, or a Hunter's Dagger. Return to Dr. Henry Bones in The Gauntlet to talk to him again, and the player will receive 9,993,150 experience and 60 . Completing this quest will also grant the player access to the Archaeologists Shop in the Outpost.


Contents

Initial designs and problems Edit

On 8 October 1948, the board of senior officers of the U.S. Air Force (USAF) made recommendations that the service organize a competition for a new interceptor scheduled to enter service in 1954 as such, the all-new design would initially be dubbed the "1954 Ultimate Interceptor". [2] Four months later, on 4 February 1949, the USAF approved the recommendation and prepared to hold the competition the following year. In November 1949, the Air Force decided that the new aircraft would be built around a fire-control system (FCS). The FCS was to be designed before the airframe to ensure compatibility. [3] The airframe and FCS together were called the weapon system.

In January 1950, the USAF Air Materiel Command issued request for proposals (RFPs) to 50 companies for the FCS, of which 18 responded. By May, the list was revised downward to 10. Meanwhile, a board at the U.S. Department of Defense headed by Major General Gordon P. Saville reviewed the proposals, and distributed some to the George E. Valley-led Air Defense Engineering Committee. Following recommendations by the committee to the Saville Board, the proposals were further reduced to two competitors, Hughes Aircraft and North American Aviation. Although the Valley Committee thought it was best to award the contract to both companies, Hughes was chosen by Saville and his team on 2 October 1950. [4] [5]

Proposals for the airframe were issued on 18 June 1950, and in January 1951 six manufacturers responded. [6] On 2 July 1954, three companies, Convair, Republic and Lockheed won the right to build a mockup. Until then, Convair had done research into delta-winged aircraft, experimenting with different designs, two of which fell under the name P-92. Of the three, the best design was to win the production contract under the name "Project MX-1554". In the end, Convair emerged as the victor with its design, designated "XF-102", after Lockheed dropped out and Republic built only a mockup. [5] The development of three different designs was too expensive and in November, only Convair was allowed to continue with its Model 8-80. [7] To speed development, it was proposed to equip the prototypes and pre-production aircraft with the less-powerful Westinghouse J40 turbojet. Continued delays to the J67 and MA-1 (formerly "MX-1179") [8] FCS led to the decision to place an interim aircraft with the J40 and a simpler fire control system (dubbed "E-9") into production as the F-102A. The failure of the J40 led to the Pratt & Whitney J57 turbojet with afterburner, rated with 10,000 pounds-force (44 kN) of thrust [9] being substituted for the prototypes and F-102As. [10] [11] This aircraft was intended to be temporary, pending the development of the F-102B, which would employ the more advanced Curtiss-Wright J67, a licensed derivative of the Bristol-Siddeley Olympus which was still in development. [12] The F-102B would later evolve to become the F-106A, dubbed the "Ultimate Interceptor". [9]

The prototype YF-102 made its first flight on 23 October 1953, at Edwards AFB, but was lost in an accident nine days later. The second aircraft flew on 11 January 1954, confirming a dismal performance. Transonic drag was much higher than expected, and the aircraft was limited to Mach 0.98 (i.e. subsonic), with a ceiling of 48,000 ft (14,630 m), far below the requirements. [13]

Major redesign Edit

To solve the problem and save the F-102, Convair embarked on a major redesign, incorporating the recently discovered area rule, while at the same time simplifying production and maintenance. [14] The redesign entailed lengthening the fuselage by 11 ft (3.35 m), being "pinched" at the midsection (dubbed the "Coke Bottle configuration"), with two large fairings on either side of the engine nozzle, with revised intakes and a new, narrower canopy. A more powerful model of the J57 was fitted, and the aircraft structure was lightened. [15] [16]

At the same time the wing was redesigned, being made thinner and wider. The leading edge was given a conical droop, with the apex at the root, to improve handling at low speeds. Because the droop remained within the shock cone of the leading edge, the drag rise at supersonic speeds was minimal. A second, inboard fence was added. [17] [18]

The first revised aircraft, designated YF-102A flew on 20 December 1954, 118 days after the redesign started, exceeding Mach 1 the next day. [16] The revised design demonstrated a speed of Mach 1.22 and a ceiling of 53,000 ft (16,154 m). These improvements were sufficient for the Air Force to allow production of the F-102, with a new production contract signed in March 1954. [19]

The production F-102A had the Hughes MC-3 fire control system, later upgraded in service to the MG-10. It had a three-segment internal weapons bay under the fuselage for air-to-air missiles. Initial armament was three pairs of GAR-1/2/3/4 (Later re-designated as AIM-4) Falcon missiles, which included both infrared homing and semi-active radar homing variants. The doors of the two forward bays each had tubes for 12 FFARs (for a total of 24) with initially 2 in (5.1 cm) being fitted and later 2.75 in (70 mm) replacing them. The F-102 was later upgraded to allow the carrying of up to two GAR-11/AIM-26 Nuclear Falcon missiles in the center bay. [20] The larger size of this weapon required redesigned center bay doors with no rocket tubes. Plans were considered to fit the MB-1 Genie nuclear rocket to the design, but although a Genie was test fired from a YF-102A in May 1956, it was never adopted. [21]

The F-102 received several major modifications during its operational lifetime, with most airframes being retrofitted with infrared search/tracking systems, radar warning receivers, transponders, backup artificial horizons, and improvements to the fire control system. [22] A proposed close-support version (never built) would have incorporated, in addition, an internal Gatling gun, an extra two hardpoints for bombs (in addition to the two underwing pylons for drop tanks that were fitted to all production F-102s), bigger internal fuel tanks, and an in-flight-refueling probe. [22]

To train F-102A pilots, the TF-102A trainer was developed, with 111 eventually manufactured. The aircraft was designed with side-by-side seating to facilitate pilot training, a popular concept in the 1950s (also used with the American Cessna T-37, British Hawker Hunter T.7 and English Electric Lightning T.4, among others). This required a redesign of the cockpit and a nose almost as wide as that of a Convair 340 commercial airliner. The new nose introduced buffeting, the source of which was traced to the bulbous canopy. Vortex generators were added to the top of the canopy to prevent the buffet which had started at about Mach 0.72. [23] The intake ducts were revised as the inlets were repositioned. Despite the many changes, the aircraft was combat-capable, although this variant was predictably slower, reaching only subsonic speeds in level flight. [24]

The numerous inherent design and technical limitations of the F-102 led to a proposed successor, initially known as the F-102B "Ultimate Interceptor". The improved design, in which the proposed Curtiss-Wright J67 jet engine was eventually replaced by a Pratt & Whitney J75, underwent so many aerodynamic changes (including variable-geometry inlets) that it essentially became an entirely new aircraft and hence was redesignated and produced as the F-106 Delta Dart. Convair would also use a delta wing design in the Mach 2 class Convair B-58 Hustler bomber.

Introduction to service Edit

The first operational service of the F-102A was with the 327th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron at George Air Force Base, [21] in April 1956, and eventually a total of 889 F-102As were built, production ending in September 1958. [25] TF-102s and F-102s were used in the 1960s by the Air Defense Command (ADC) at Perrin AFB, Texas to train new F-102 pilots. They also provided platform training on flight characteristics of delta-winged aircraft for pilots who were destined to fly the B-58 Hustler bomber for the Strategic Air Command (SAC).

The F-102's official name, "Delta Dagger", was never used in common parlance, with the aircraft being universally known as the "Deuce." The TF-102 was known as the "Tub" because of its wider fuselage with side-by-side twin seating. [ citation needed ]

During the time the F-102A was in service, several new wing designs were used to experiment with the application of increased conical camber to the wings. Ultimately, a design was selected that actually increased elevon area, reduced takeoff speed, improved the supersonic L/D ratio and increased the aircraft's ceiling to 56,000 ft (17,069 m). A modification was required to the landing gear doors due to the wing redesign.

The Air Defense Command had F-102 Delta Daggers in service in 1960 and the type continued to serve in large numbers with both Air Force and Air National Guard units well into the 1970s. George W. Bush, later President of the United States, flew the F-102 in the 147th Fighter Interceptor Group based at Ellington AFB in Houston, Texas as part of his Texas Air National Guard service from 1968 to 1972. [26]

Vietnam War service Edit

The F-102 served in the Vietnam War, flying fighter patrols and serving as bomber escorts. A total of 14 aircraft were lost in Vietnam: one to air-to-air combat, [27] several to ground fire and the remainder to accidents.

Initially, F-102 detachments began to be sent to bases in Southeast Asia in 1962 after radar contacts detected by ground radars were thought to possibly be North Vietnamese Vietnam People's Air Force (VPAF) Il-28 "Beagle" bombers – considered to be a credible threat in that time period. The F-102s were sent to Thailand and other nearby countries to intercept these aircraft if they threatened South Vietnam.

Later on, Boeing B-52 Stratofortress strikes, codenamed "Arc Light", were escorted by F-102s based in the theater. It was during one of these missions that an F-102 was shot down by a VPAF Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 using an AA-2 Atoll heat-seeking missile. The MiGs approached undetected, and one of the F-102s was hit by an air-to-air missile, which did not explode immediately, but remained lodged in the aft end of the aircraft, causing stability problems. As the pilot reported the problem to his wingman, the wingman observed the damaged Delta Dagger explode in midair, killing the pilot. [28] This was the only air-to-air loss for the F-102 during the Vietnam War. The other F-102 pilot fired AIM-4 missiles at the departing MiG-21s, but no hit was recorded.

The F-102 was employed in the air-to-ground role with limited success, although neither the aircraft nor the training for its pilots were designed for that role. The 509th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron's Deuces arrived at Da Nang Air Base, 4 August 1964 from Clark Air Base, Philippines. [29] The interceptor was equipped with 24 2.75 in (70 mm) FFARs in the fuselage bay doors. These could be used to good effect against various types of North Vietnamese targets in daylight. At night it proved less dangerous to use heat-seeking Falcon missiles in conjunction with the F-102's nose-mounted IRST (Infrared Search & Track) on nighttime harassment raids along the Ho Chi Minh Trail. Some F-102As were configured to accommodate a single AIM-26 Super Falcon in each side bay in lieu of the two conventional AIM-4 Falcons. Operations with both the F-102A and TF-102A two-seaters (which were used in a Forward Air Control role because its two seats and 2.75 in/70 mm rockets offered good versatility for the mission) continued in Vietnam until 1968 when all F-102s were returned to the United States.

Summary of (14) USAF F-102 Delta Daggers lost in the Vietnam War 1964–1969
Date F-102 model Unit Cause of loss/remarks
27 November 1964 F-102A 509th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron (FIS) Engine failure. [30]
1 July 1965 F-102A 509th FIS (3) (3) F-102As destroyed on the ground by enemy sappers at Da Nang Air Base. [31]
15 December 1965 F-102A 509th FIS Downed by ground fire while providing close air support (CAS). [32]
19 August 1966 F-102A 509th FIS Operational loss, crashed during night landing. [33]
14 December 1966 F-102A 64th FIS Downed by small arms fire within 60 seconds after takeoff. [34]
15 January 1967 TF-102A 509th FIS Operational loss, ferry mission. [35]
2 April 1967 F-102A 509th FIS Operational loss, engine failure. Also served with 16th & 64th FIS. [36]
12 May 1967 F-102A 509th FIS Destroyed during enemy ground attack mortar fire at Biên Hòa Air Base. [37]
3 February 1968 F-102A 509th FIS Downed by MiG-21 K-13 (missile) at 36,000 feet. [38]
16 July 1968 F-102A 509th FIS Operational loss, engine failure. [39]
16 September 1968 F-102A 509th FIS Operational loss, ground collision after landing with an RF-4 Phantom II. [40]
7 January 1969 F-102A 509th FIS Operational loss, engine failure. [41]

Later use Edit

In 1973, six aircraft were converted to target drones as QF-102As and later PQM-102Bs (simulating MiG-21 threat aircraft) under a Full Scale Aerial Target (FSAT) project known as Pave Deuce. [42] Eventually, the program converted hundreds of F-102s for use as target drones for newer fighter aircraft, as well as testing of the U.S. Army's Patriot missile system. [43]

The F-102 and TF-102 were exported overseas to both Turkey and Greece. The Turkish F-102s saw combat missions during the 1974 Turkish invasion of Cyprus. There have been claims of air combat between Greek F-5s and Turkish F-102s above the Aegean Sea during the Turkish invasion. A Greek internet website editor, Demetrius Stergiou, claims that the Greek F-5s had shot down two Turkish F-102s, while the Turkish side has claimed that their F-102s had shot down two Greek F-5s [44] however, both Greece and Turkey still officially deny any aircraft losses. The F-102 was finally retired from both of those air forces in 1979.

The F-102 left U.S. service in 1976, while the last QF-102A / PQM-102B drone was expended in 1986. No F-102s remain in flyable condition today, although many can be seen at museums or as permanent static displays as gate guardians at Air Force and Air National Guard installations.

In 1969, Greece acquired 24 of these aircraft for use by the 114th Combat Wing at Tanagra Air Base. 19 of them were single-seat F-102As, five were two-seat TF-102As. They served with the Greek air force until 1977, when the F-102s were replaced by Mirage F1CG fighters. . [48]

Beginning in 1968, approximately 50 F-102As and TF-102As were transferred to Turkey from USAF stocks. Before transfer to Turkey, they were overhauled by CASA in Seville. They were initially assigned to the 191st Filo (Squadron) based at Murted, replacing the F-84F Thunderstreaks previously assigned to this unit. This unit was redesignated 142nd Filo in early 1973. In 1971, F-102s were also assigned to the 182nd Filo based at Diyarbakır, replacing the F-84Fs previously being flown by this unit. F-102s remained in service with these two squadrons until mid-1979, when they were replaced by the F-104G in the 142nd Filo and by the F-100C in the 182nd Filo.


    , the next class in the orderly dagger class, can be obtained as soon as you have silverguard.
  • Second lowest weapon XP requirement of non-mage super-classes (Blacksmith requires less, but has other very difficult requirements).
  • The upgraded agility can allow for you to catch opponents, or flee from opponents with considerable ease.
  • Silverguard makes spy a very tanky class among other supers, as all damage received while it is active is halved assuming you possess the appropriate silver. benefits this class greatly for pre-emptive attacks. Using interrogate and knocking them out allows high damaging spells to be performed with ease.
  • Feather Falling is a general benefit to exploring and escaping, as falling and breaking a bone / taking considerable fall damage is much less of a concern. When combined with rolling before hitting the ground, a Spy can fall absurd distances with minimal damage.
  • If near a cliff you can basically 1 shot someone by interrogating them and throwing them off of the cliff, unless they escape quick enough. This move is scummy as hell and your victim will likely hunt you down for doing this.
  • Your stealth is transparent enough for you to launch ambushes on your enemies.(e.g. enough to throw someone in a group off Oresfall's cliff.).
  • Low damage output due to its lack of offensive skills.
  • Unlike it's chaotic counterpart, it has no way to effectively connect the dagger to the opponent. This means it will remain fairly difficult to make a successful combo let alone deal decent damage.
  • Players can easily avoid being interrogated by dropping silver to put themselves in combat.
  • Even when mana shielding, if you have silver guard activated, it will still take away silver.
  • Silver guard is useless without a large amount of silver.
  • Often viewed as the worst super class, so go to tundra and get Whisperer as soon as you can.
  • Without paying attention, when you block an attack with silver guard, you may think you got hit, and act weirdly.
  • Each fight takes a lot of silver from you with silver guard if you’re fighting people with low dmg output per hit.

The Deadliest Massacre in Reconstruction-Era Louisiana Happened 150 Years Ago

So read the note found on the schoolhouse door by its intended recipient: Emerson Bentley, a white school teacher. He found the message in early September 1868, illustrated with a coffin, a skull and bones, and a dagger dripping with blood. The straightforward message represented a menacing threat to Bentley, who was teaching African-American children in Louisiana at the time. Little could the Ohio-born Republican have predicted just how soon that violence would come about.

Bentley, an 18-year-old who also worked as one of the editors of the Republican paper The St. Landry Progress, was one of the few white Republicans in the Louisiana parish of St. Landry. He and others came to the region to assist recently emancipated African-Americans find jobs, access education and become politically active. With Louisiana passing a new state constitution in April 1868 that included male enfranchisement and access to state schools regardless of color, Bentley had reason to feel optimistic about the state’s future.

But southern, white Democrats were nowhere near willing to concede the power they’d held for decades before the Civil War. And in St. Landry, one of the largest and most populous parishes in the state, thousands of white men were eager to take up arms to defend their political power.

The summer of 1868 was a tumultuous one. With the help of tens of thousands of black citizens who finally had the right to vote, Republicans handily won local and state elections that spring. Henry Clay Warmoth, a Republican, won the race for state governor, but the votes African-Americans cast for those elections cost them. Over the summer, armed white men harassed black families, shot at them outside of Opelousas (the largest city in St. Landry Parish), and killed men, women and children with impunity. Editors of Democratic newspapers repeatedly warned of dire consequences if the Republican party continued winning victories at the polls.

Those editorials spurred Democrats to action and instigated violence everywhere, wrote Warmoth in his book War, Politics, and Reconstruction: Stormy Days in Louisiana. “Secret Democratic organizations were formed, and all armed. We had ‘The Knights of the White Camellia,’ ‘The Ku-Klux Klan,’ and an Italian organization called ‘The Innocents,’ who nightly paraded the streets of New Orleans and the roads in the country parishes, producing terror among the Republicans.”

The vigilante groups were so widespread that they often included nearly every white man in the region. One Democratic newspaper editor estimated that more than 3,000 men belonged to the Knights of the White Camellia of St. Landry Parish—an area that included only 13,776 white people in total, including women and children.

With the approach of the presidential elections in November, the tension only increased. On September 13, the Republicans held a meeting in the town of Washington, not far from Opelousas, and found streets lined with armed Seymour Knights. A misfired rifle nearly caused a riot to break out, but in the end, everyone departed peacefully—though the Democrats threatened Bentley if he failed to publish an “honest” account of the event in the St. Landry Progress. Sure enough, they used Bentley’s account, in which he wrote the men had been intimidating the Republicans, to instigate a wave of violence on September 28, 1868.

Displeased with the way Bentley had portrayed the Democrats, Democrats John Williams, James R. Dickson (who later became a local judge), and constable Sebastian May visited Bentley’s schoolhouse to make good on the anonymous threats of the earlier September note. They forced him to sign a retraction of the article, and then Dickson savagely beat Bentley, sending the children who were sitting for lessons scattering in terror. Rumors spread, and soon many Republicans were convinced Bentley had been killed, though he managed to escape with his life. As a small number of African-Americans prepared to rescue Bentley, word spread around the parish that a black rebellion was imminent. Thousands of white men began arming themselves and raiding houses around the area.

“St. Landrians reacted to armed Negroes and rumors of an uprising in the same manner that Southerners had reacted for generations,” wrote historian Carolyn deLatte in 1976. “If anything, the vengeance visited upon the Negro population was greater, as blacks were no longer protected by any consideration of their monetary value.”

On the first night, only one small group of armed African-Americans assembled to deal with the report they’d heard about Bentley. They were met by an armed group of white men, mounted on horses, outside Opelousas. Of those men, 29 were taken to the local prison, and 27 of them were summarily executed. The bloodshed continued for two weeks, with African-American families killed in their homes, shot in public, and chased down by vigilante groups. C.E. Durand, the other editor of the St. Landry Progress, was murdered in the early days of the massacre and his body displayed outside the Opelousas drug store. By the end of the two weeks, estimates of the number killed were around 250 people, the vast majority of them African-American.

When the Bureau of Freedmen (a governmental organization created to provide emancipated African-Americans with legal, health and educational assistance and help them settle abandoned lands) sent Lieutenant Jesse Lee to investigate, he called it “a quiet reign of terror so far as the freed people were concerned.” Influential Republican Beverly Wilson, an African-American blacksmith in Opelousas, believed black citizens were “in a worse condition now than in slavery.” Another observer was led outside the town of Opelousas and shown the half-buried bodies of more than a dozen African-Americans.

But Democratic papers—the only remaining sources of news in the region, as all Republican presses had been burned—downplayed the horrific violence. “The people generally are well satisfied with the result of the St. Landry riot, only they regret that the Carpet-Baggers escaped,” wrote Daniel Dennet, editor of the Democratic Franklin Planter’s Banner. “The editor escaped and a hundred dead negroes, and perhaps a hundred more wounded and crippled, a dead white Radical, a dead Democrat, and three or four wounded Democrats are the upshot of the business.”

The groups managed to achieve their ultimate purpose, as was borne out by the results of the November presidential elections. Even though Republican nominee Ulysses Grant won, not a single Republican vote was counted in St. Landry Parish. Those who oversaw the election felt “fully convinced that no man on that day could have voted any other than the democratic ticket and not been killed inside of 24 hours thereafter.”

“St. Landry Parish illustrates the local shift of power after 1868, where an instance of conservative boss rule occurred and the parish Republican Party was unable to fully recover for the remainder of Reconstruction,” writes historian Matthew Christensen. There would be no Republican organization in the parish for the next four years, and no Republican paper until 1876.

The Opelousas massacre also set the stage for future acts of violence and intimidation. “Lynching became routinized in Louisiana, a systematic way by which whites sought to assert white supremacy in response to African-American resistance,” said historian Michael Pfeifer, the author of The Roots of Rough Justice: Origins of American Lynching, by email. “This would be an important precedent for the subsequent wave of lynchings that occurred in Louisiana from the 1890s through the early decades of the twentieth century, in which lynch mobs killed more than 400 persons, most of them African American.”

Yet for all that it was the deadliest instance of racial violence during the Reconstruction period, the Opleousas massacre is little remembered today. Only slightly better known is the 1873 Colfax massacre in which an estimated 60 to 150 people were killed—a massacre largely following the pattern set by Opelousas.

“The United States has done comparatively little until quite recently to memorialize its history of significant racial violence,” Pfeifer said. “Reconstruction remains contested in local memory and efforts to remember the achievements of Reconstruction are cancelled out by the seeming failure of the period to achieve lasting change.”


Read the Full Transcript

CHRISTOPHER BOOKER:

The actions taken by the George W. Bush administration in the aftermath of the September 11th, 2001, terrorist attacks, were, according to author Mary Graham, a recalibration of the role of secrecy in open government. A president who championed limited government approved the secret detention of foreign terrorist suspects and the eavesdropping on phone calls of American citizens.

MARY GRAHAM:

When his detention policies and interrogation policies and surveillance policies began to be revealed, this was then a few years later, I thought there must be some ground rules. There must be a law that tells us what a president can do behind closed doors in an emergency. But it turned out there really were no laws. One thing about our system of governance that makes secrecy so interesting is that there's really no way that to stop a president from doing something illegal, unethical, or just plain foolish behind closed doors.

CHRISTOPHER BOOKER:

In her new book, "Presidents' Secrets: The Use and Abuse of Hidden Power," Graham finds modern presidential secrecy is paramount in questions of national security, from the Cold War to the War on Terror.

The Bush administration came in with a firm commitment that they could move things quickly through government and then they have the crisis of 9/11. And this substantially changed the way that they used information and used secrecy.

MARY GRAHAM:

It's only in the hard times when the president has to face these values &mdash the conflict between values that we cherish, that you see a president's true character. So I think that these are the times when we need to pay attention to what decisions the president makes about openness and secrecy.

CHRISTOPHER BOOKER:

When President Barack Obama took over, he declassified memos used to justify harsh interrogations of post 9/11 terror suspects, and he created a national declassification center for older government documents.

But Wikileaks and self-described whistleblower, Edward Snowden, prevented the Obama administration from concealing details about electronic surveillance, drone strikes, and offensive cyber weapons.

What was it like coming to the finish line of your book toward the end of the Obama administration thinking that we have just now tapped into a whole new chapter of information and secrecy, particularly the ways in which the digital age are transforming the whole landscape?

MARY GRAHAM:

Secrecy doesn't work in the digital age. One way or another, controversial secrets and big controversial secrets come out these days. And it's much harder to keep anything hidden for very long. And what ends up happening is that the president cedes leadership to his opponents and to the media. And therefore is weakened in the process.

CHRISTOPHER BOOKER:

A co-founder of Harvard's Transparency Policy Project, Graham finds our democracy's delicate balance between openness and secrecy dates back to country's founding.

You write, "in democracy, secrecy cannot last forever." And yet, our government, the representative form we so often celebrate, was rather shockingly born out of unplanned secrecy.

MARY GRAHAM:

That's so true. So the Constitutional Convention was held behind closed doors. The delegates certainly felt that it had to be held behind closed doors because they had been asked by Congress only to tweak what were then called the Articles of Confederation. And once they decided that they would consider an entirely different form of government, it really was an illicit meeting in a good cause, but still an illicit meeting.

CHRISTOPHER BOOKER:

Do you think had the discussion taken place out in the open it would have altered our national trajectory and essentially our identity?

MARY GRAHAM:

You know, the consensus of historians seems to be that it would not have resulted in an agreement on a constitution if the process had been open.

CHRISTOPHER BOOKER:

Even George Washington, a champion of government transparency, suffered his greatest political crisis as president, when he hid the terms of a treaty with Britain.

One of the best kept presidential secrets in U.S. history occurred in 1919, when president Woodrow Wilson suffered a stroke.

MARY GRAHAM:

It would never happen now, what happened with Wilson, which was he was able to keep an incapacitating stroke secret for a year-and-a-half. But during much of that time, he was still quite weak but what became the biggest problem for the country is that he became irrational.

CHRISTOPHER BOOKER:

But Graham says, it wasn't until the Cold War, that secrecy became institutionalized. As she tells it, Harry Truman's creation of the Central Intelligence Agency originated simply with a quest for a convenient delivery of information.

MARY GRAHAM:

On his desk every morning, there were stacks and stacks of military cables, which was the best effort at the time to give him information about what was going on in the world. But he found them very frustrating. So what he asked an aide to do which seemed very simple at the time was just to form a small group in the White House that would digest those cables and give him a few type-written pages every morning telling him what was the important intelligence. And so he borrowed 15 employees from elsewhere in the government and he called that the Central Intelligence Group.

CHRISTOPHER BOOKER:

Less than two years later, this group, which had evolved into what is now called the Central Intelligence agency, had been granted the right to keep its spending secret and operate with little oversight.

MARY GRAHAM:

As Harry Truman said later, it was never supposed to be a cloak and dagger operation. They were just supposed to gather intelligence. So they were gathering intelligence. But from a very early stage, they were also conducting these covert operations that involved bribing foreign officials. Later on by the '60s, it involved assassination plots and surveillance of Americans, even though it was not, the C.I.A. was not supposed to be in that business.

CHRISTOPHER BOOKER:

With Vietnam and Watergate, Lyndon Johnson and Richard Nixon had two of the more notably secretive administrations.

Ironically, as a senator, Johnson fought for increased presidential transparency. But in the White House, he worked to water down the bill that became the Freedom of Information Act, which gives journalists and the public greater access to government documents.

And while Nixon's back channel negotiations led to normalizing U.S. relations with China, the revelation of his secret tape recordings discussing the Watergate break-in forced him to resign.

This was all before 24-7 cable news, the internet, and social media &hellip.A constant part of a 21st century presidency.

It seems nearly every, single day there's a new revelation that's come via an anonymous source or a leak.

MARY GRAHAM:

So every president gets mad about leaks. President Obama was mad about leaks. President Bush was mad about leaks. George Washington was mad about leaks. There's one thing to remember about leaks, and that is leakers only have power if the president gives them power. The president can stop leaks in a nanosecond by simply disclosing information.


History

D-Rank Dungeon Arc

Sung Jin-Woo and members of his raid party including Song Chi-Yul and Lee Ju-Hee entered the dungeon believing it to be a D-Rank dungeon and well within their capabilities. After clearing the main dungeon, which was indeed was of such caliber, the group discovered another entrance within the dungeon. The group entered the pathway leading to the dungeon after voting on whether to enter or not. Standing in front of the large door, Song Chi-Yul pushed open the large doors to be presented with a seemingly abandoned temple with towering stone statues and a large statue sitting on a throne. The room was lit with light blue flames that were littered across the room.

There existed 3 commandments within the dungeon, stating:

After a D-Rank member of the party was killed by the statues in an attempt to leave the dungeon, the group began to panic with the statues' ability to move and kill hunters with ease.

Many hunters were slain by the statues before the first and second commandments were fulfilled allowing the remaining survivors except Jin-Woo to escape the temple. Jin-Woo, who was left alone was impaled by one of the dungeons statues and was on the verge of death. As Jin-Woo writhed in pain, he wished for another chance at life, only to witness a 'Status window' present itself before him, stating that he had completed the requirements for the hidden quest, Courage of the Weak. Jin-Woo, being given the option to accept or reject his status as a player, chose to accept this, and hence survived the Double Dungeon.

Double Dungeon Arc


Abilities

Active

  • Dagger Throw - The user throws a dagger towards an opponent, dealing low damage. (15 damage with all daggers) While this appears to be impractical, it can combat tag enemies if it hits or flies near them, keeping them from logging. And while it's weak, it's still a (and thief's only) ranged option. When you and your enemy are spaced, don't hesitate to use a dagger throw. (you can also kill the dragon with this if you're going solo dragon slayer.)
  • Pickpocket- Pickpocket has an M1 and M2. M1 is pickpocket, where the user steals 3 silver from whoever is touched by it. However, the user whose silver is being stolen hears the sound of being pick-pocketed, and you are likely to be caught. If the target has less than 3 silver, it steals all of their remaining silver. The M2 is trinket steal, which allows you to steal any trinket off of someone (if they have more than one of the same trinket, it steals the entire stack). Phoenix Downs, Rift Gems, and Ice Essences can be stolen as well, but other artifacts cannot.
  • Lock Manipulation - Allows you to unlock any locked door, or lock any door for 6,4 seconds. Cannot lockpick chaotic doors, only lock them. You cannot use this ability while your leg is broken. Often used to escape jail cells.
  • Agility - Temporarily increases movement and attack speed for all weapons (including fists). The end of the buff is signaled with a blue flash on your character. 30 second cooldown. Ashiins automatically get Agility when buying a dagger. Agility's duration is increased upon becoming a Spy or Assassin.
  • Stealth - The user becomes slightly transparent for around 20 seconds. Stealth can be used without a dagger, but the duration will only be for around 13 seconds. Upon become a Spy or Assassin, Stealth makes you much more transparent than the Thief version. (Stealth as a baseclass thief is laughable, you are still very visible. It could be used to hide your name and it MIGHT help if it is dark. Also, if you are underwater and use Stealth, you are completely invisible to anyone who is above the water's surface, since it reflects light. You can still be seen by anyone who is underneath the water's surface.)

Moonshadestone - Demons Souls

Moonshadestone is an upgrade item found in Demon's Souls and Demon's Souls Remake. Upgrade Materials are items that are used to strengthen the statistical value and to increase the effect of a certain piece of equipment.

Moonshadow. Enhances daggers, knives, and so on.

The darkmoonstone's power will also cause the user of a weapon enhanced with it to slowly regenerate MP. Weapons can be strengthened by Darkmoonstones up to a maximum of level 5.

Moonshadestone Types and Availability

Moonshadestone Shard

  • Dropped by Reaper in The Ritual Path.
  • Dropped by Crystal Lizard in Shrine of Storms. Roll over the broken down tower walls to find a corpse containing x1 Regenerator's Ring, then take the narrow path on the right to find a Crystal Lizard.
  • Dropped by Crystal Lizard in Shrine of Storms. In the area where you find Sparkly, the Crow. Get close to the right edge and you will see one Crystal Lizard, drop down and chase it to kill it.
  • Can be bought from the Graverobber Blige for 3000 souls each in The Ritual Path.

Moonshadestone Chunk

  • Dropped by Reaper in The Ritual Path.
  • Dropped by Crystal Lizard in Shrine of Storms. Roll over the broken down tower walls to find a corpse containing x1 Regenerator's Ring, then take the narrow path on the right to find a Crystal Lizard.
  • Dropped by Crystal Lizard in Shrine of Storms. In the area where you find Sparkly, the Crow. Get close to the right edge and you will see one Crystal Lizard, drop down and chase it to kill it.
  • Dropped by Crystal Lizard in The Ritual Path. Near the location of the White Bow, by the cliffside.
  • Dropped by Crystal Lizard in The Ritual Path. One emerges from a grave in the cemetery area and the other is hidden on the grass.
  • Dropped by the Black Phantom guarding Saint Urbain in The Ritual Path.

Pure Moonshadestone

  • Dropped by Crystal Lizard in The Ritual Path. Near the location of the White Bow, by the cliffside.
  • Dropped by Crystal Lizard in the Altar of Storms. One emerges from a grave in the cemetery area and the other is hidden on the grass.

Compatible Weapons

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23 Jan 2021 00:31

Copied from the Upgrades page:

Crescent Upgrades
Upgrade weapons with the Crescent upgrade path from +1 to a max level of +5. This path requires the Moonshadestone material. Removes any STR and DEX bonuses but it also provides a magical damage effect to the weapon that scales with the MAG stat. It also provides a Mana regen. effect of +1 regen / 5

19 Dec 2020 07:37

To clear up confusion, most lizards have 1 or 2 spawns, but get +1 for every boss killed in that world. Second, did about 30 runs of the first reaper in ritual path for dark moonstone (moonshade stone in remake). I got 2 chunks, 1 war scythe, and the rest were shards in pure black world tendency with the providential ring on. I would use this spot as an early soul/upgrade farm or as a last resort. The crystal lizards in alter of storms I think have the highest chance, so rolling back a save file to ensure the drop or quitting out if that still works is an option and honestly probably the best method for chunks/pure stone.

02 Dec 2020 16:18

I tried getting the pure darkmoonstone from these lizards but all they dropped were chunks and now they wont respawn anymore. So broken

25 Nov 2020 19:31

you can kill them over and over some respawn some dont but at bare minimum the white bow one can be killed 3 times.. the other two i dont know

01 Feb 2019 08:09

So if you mess up and don&apost kill the Crystal Lizards, you cannot get pure darkmoonstone, Thats dumb


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